Though "for" is used in the Boethius translation to indicate an external cause rather than an intention--the Roman council (OE witan) removes Tarquin because of his "ofermettum," as opposed to Byrhtnoth
clearing the bridge because of his own ofermod--the structure is parallel: "for his ofermettum" in Boethius, "for his ofermode" in Maldon, both taking the dative (ofermetto is a feminine variant on ofermod).
Led by their ealdorman, Byrhtnoth
, they faced up to a larger Viking force at the River Blackwater.
None of these articles is worthless, however, and in sum this young journal has more than proven itself professional, even if it will have to be admitted that there are typographical errors in almost every article: one can forgive the occasional misspellings of "Byrhtnoth
," but there are several others.
(13) Similarly, in The Battle of Maldon, the flight of three retainers is represented not as a consequence of imminent defeat, but as the cause of the defeat itself: one retainer uses the horse of Byrhtnoth
, the army's leader, and many more men then flee under the assumption that their leader is retreating.
No nos consta que los guerreros de Byrhtnoth
tuvieran fustas a mano, y el poema anglosajon no indica el lugar adonde debian ser enviados los caballos ...
Gregory VanHoosier-Carey argues that the image of a beleaguered Anglo-Saxon England 'furnished Southern intellectuals with [...] a comprehensible narrative that both legitimized Southern defeat and promised eventual Southern victory' ('Byrhtnoth
in Dixie: The Emergence of Anglo-Saxon Studies in the Postbellum South' (p.
The sense corresponding to 'very' is also evident in the quotation from Byrhtnoth
, a text written before the year 1000:
What does not seem to have been noticed is the fact that the majority of the few eastern or south-eastern features cluster in the speeches of Byrhtnoth
, the ealdorman of Essex, and in that of the sole follower whose Essex origin is made explicit, Leofsunu of Sturmer.(5) In Byrhtnoth
's reply to the Viking messenger are found the certain easternism gofol (61), and the inverted spellings aettrynne (47), stynt (51), and gealgean (52); and, in Leofsunu's speech, the inverted spelling trym (247) and one of the examples of <ae> for <e>, haelaedh (249).
It occurs within the speech shouted by the Viking messenger across the River Pante (now the Blackwater) to Byrhtnoth
and the English army, and reads as follows in the eighteenth-century transcript that comprises the only surviving record of the text:(1)
The stidh- adverb can be interpreted, "with a rigid, hard, unyielding body; sternly." Byrhtnoth
's taunt in line 59 completes the hard-soft contrast.
When the Vikings cannot advance because of their poor position, the English commander Earl Byrhtnoth
recklessly allows them safe conduct across the stream, and the battle follows.
Whether or not he specifically thought of himself as rewriting the Old English poem The Battle of Maldon when writing Gandalf's stand against the Balrog (see Bruce and Bowman), his non-fictional writing clearly indicates his belief that Byrhtnoth
makes the wrong decision, and he just as clearly believed that Gandalf makes the right decision under similar circumstances.