The Orthodox Byzantines
refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope of Rome over all things sacred and secular, and they allowed their emperor far more authority over the Church than papal partisans could countenance.
were defeated and their commander, Theophilus was captured and brought to the Caliph.
He nevertheless correctly makes some room for the post-1204 period, where the provincial Byzantines
sought to promote their own capitals and a more detached sense of 'national' identity appeared.
Natasha Hodgson's article explores an area neglected by both Crusade and Byzantine
scholars: how native Christian peoples reacted to the crusaders.
Luttwak analyzes a variety of strategic methods and instruments the Byzantines
used to pursue grand strategy and how they were refined over the centuries.
Luttwak recognizes that the Byzantines
did not understand or practice strategy as we do today, but he contends they consistently behaved in line with a recognizable strategy that developed over time.
Under the command of Belisarius, the Byzantines
capably outmaneuvered a much larger force of highly skilled and experienced Persian warriors.
The exhibition Encounters, just opened at the Barber Institute, is devoted to tracing some of these complexities, exploring the dominance of the Byzantine
Empire from the late fifth century onwards.
Chapter one, "The Encounter with Byzantium," addresses the formation of the initial Muslim image of the Byzantines
and its evolution up to and in the aftermath of the failed Muslim siege of Constantinople in 99/717.
Edward Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, found Byzantines
barbarian and perverted, a judgment Europe accepted until the late 19th century when painters rediscovered Byzantine
art and historians began to unearth its true history--a task that continues and from which this exhibit profits so remarkably.
Cependant, le gros des travaux d'extraction date des periodes romaines et byzantines
, de la fin du premier siecle avant J.
Among the rousing adventures of this poet-warrior was the rescue of an emperor of Rome itself (he's called King ibn Marqus) at the head of a Byzantine
Greek force, even though the Byzantines
were enemies of the Arabs.