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any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.


See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).


A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
References in periodicals archive ?
The authors will examine and compare the constitutionality of the various DRM provisions of Bill C-60 and Bill C-61.
Rather than relying on laser blasts, which produce fullerenes through unknown mechanisms, Chapman aims to design sequences of chemical reactions for methodically assembling both the C-60 and C-80 spheres.
The C-55 AP joins the existing AirTight C-50 and C-60 AP product line that provides customers with their choice of AP and WIPS sensor configurations including dual band/non-concurrent, dual band/concurrent, dual AP with background WIPS, overlay WIPS, or AP/sensor combo with dedicated dual-band WIPS sensor.
On June 17, the Senate passed Bill C-60, An Act to amend the National Defence Act (court martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another Act, at second reading.
224) Even when fair dealings would apply to circumvention, as was the case in Bill C-60, there is still the potential to allow a distortion of the balance that copyright has traditionally respected.
To create an improved contrast agent for X-ray imaging, Wilson and his colleagues have also bonded multiple iodine atoms to the outside of C-60 molecules.
Senior officials of Anti-Naxalite Operations (ANO) and members of the C-60 commando unit are on their way to the spot, when last reports came in.
Union Process has built its first C-60 continuous attritor for an environmentally conscientious ceramics manufacturer.
That's why buckyballs have been showing up in some cosmetic products, such as Zelens Fullerene C-60 Day Cream[TM].
The 11 subsequent essays by Canadian scholars and lawyers consider specific Bill C-60 provisions, in terms of the constitutional, freedom of expression, privacy, and marketplace aspects, as well as rights management, "making available," ISP liability, performers' and photographers' rights, and the education and library communities.