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any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.


See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).


A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
References in periodicals archive ?
The results indicate that HWQT (Iran:45 C-75 min; China: 48 C-60 min) for export of mango cv Sufaid Chaunsa, to Iran and China, has no negative effect on quality attributes, rather helps to reduce anthracnose incidence and internal discoloration during storage.
02(1) of Bill C-60 purported to grant a civil cause of action to a rights holder against anyone who circumvented a technological measure that protected a work (if the purpose of that circumvention was for the purpose of copyright infringement (5)).
Furthermore, as Bill C-60 is no longer before Parliament, it is possible that a new proposal may contain an access measure and an anti-device measure (certainly the entertainment industry will lobby hard on this point).
Each room uses the new Tandberg Codec C-60 video collaboration engine, built with an integrated, stationary operating system -- the first to be used in the Midwest.
Inspector General of Police (Anti-Naxal Operations) Anup Kumar Singh told media late on Sunday that one of the parties of the C-60 Commando Force was conducting an anti-Naxal operation near Medhri village around 10 am, when the red ultras opened fire on them.
According to police sources, the incident took place while the police patrol party was carrying a search operation in the area in which a commando of the C-60 battalion, Chinna Menta, was killed.
On June 17, the Senate passed Bill C-60, An Act to amend the National Defence Act (court martial) and to make a consequential amendment to another Act, at second reading.
Le 17 juin, le Senat a adopte en deuxieme lecture le projet de loi C-60, Loi modifiant la Loi sur la defense nationale (cour martiale) et une autre loi en consequence, avec dissidence.
The remarkably stable C-60 molecule forms in almost any soot-producing environment, notes fullerene chemist Richard E.
The improvement in gross loss from the prior year was because of increased total volume and higher margin C-60 series units and lower warranty and inventory charges of $1.
for upgradation and Conversion of Brachytherapy wing Existing Male Therapy Ward (LDR) into C-60 HDR Bunker and Female Therapy ward into Console Room and Patient Recovery Room.
All the dead policemen belonged to the C-60 anti-Naxal force raised by Maharashtra.