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(1) (Chalcogenide RAM) See phase change memory.

(2) (Card Random Access Memory) An early magnetic card mass storage device from NCR that was made available on its 315 computer systems in 1962. It offered reasonably reliable random access storage at a time when magnetic tapes with sequential access were the primary storage medium.

A Mechanical Wonder
CRAM used a removable cartridge housing a deck of 3x14" cards with a magnetic recording surface. There were initially 256, and later 512, cards in the deck, providing 5.5MB and 11MB of storage. With a roomful of 16 units connected to the computer, the total storage capacity was 176 megabytes, a rather large amount of random access capacity for that era.

With air blowing over them to keep them apart, the notched cards were suspended from eight rods that were selectively moved to release a specific card. The card was dropped and wrapped around a rotating drum using air pressure. After reading or writing, it was returned to the cartridge. Every once in a while, two cards dropped at the same time, causing a loud halt to the operation. See RACE and Data Cell.

CRAM Units
NCR's CRAM was a successful addition to its computer line, offering reliable random access during the 1960s. By the end of the decade, magnetic disks were becoming mainstream. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)
References in periodicals archive ?
mil/firesbulletin/2012/mar april/4 C-RAM Joint Intercept Capability.
Caption: A drawing showing the different ranges at which artillery C-RAM systems and mini-missiles based systems can neutralise a 81 mm mortar round and a 107 mm rocket (MBDA)
Our products are essential to war fighter protection solutions like C-RAM as well as precision munitions guidance," added Miller.
NEW YORK -- EDO Corporation (NYSE: EDO) has received a $15 million follow-on award for expanded support of the Army's force protection system known as C-RAM (Counter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar).
Under this contract, JMAR will use its patented x-ray stepper and point source technologies to develop x-ray masks for fabrication of high-speed C-RAM with 50-35 nanometer features, enabling 16 megabyte and higher densities for high-priority military and space applications.