C.I.A.M.(Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne). Founded in 1928 by Hélène de Mandrot, Sigfried GiedionGiedion, Sigfried
, 1883–1968, Swiss historian of architecture. Giedion was a student of Heinrich Wölfflin and close associate of Walter Gropius. He was a key figure of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (see CIAM) from its inception (1928), and taught
..... Click the link for more information. , and Le CorbusierLe Corbusier
, pseud. of Charles Édouard Jeanneret
, 1887–1965, French architect, b. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Often known simply as "Corbu," he was one of the most influential architects of the 20th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. , C.I.A.M. sought to divert architecture from academic preoccupations. The organization was the major instrument for propagating avant-garde ideas in architecture and town planning during the periods from 1930 to 1934 and from 1950 to 1955. The early congresses stressed rigid functional zoning and a single type of urban housing; at subsequent meetings members reacted against inflexible and mechanical concepts of orderly planning. Internal conflict led to the group's eventual collapse after the Dubrovnik congress of 1956.
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