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any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.


See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/


A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 6: Effect of MB value on frost durability of C60 CSC: (a) [E.sub.r].
Trossachs and Teith councillor Martin Earl said: "This a very worthwhile project and I wish it every success but let us not forget that just recently we were fighting to save the C60 bus that connects all these communities.
The levels of the concrete grade were C40, C50, and C60 as per the Chinese code [20], corresponding to the third term in the "specimen No." The last term represents the diameter of the tensile reinforcement.
Further, tandem devices T1-T4 made with distinct interconnectors are designed and simulated to prove the effectiveness of proposed CGL consisting of multilayers of Al/LiF/C70/CoPc and also the advantage of using C70 over C60. The detail design structure of devices T1-T4 is given in Table 3.
It is important to highlight that, in the hypothesis 2, due to lack of standardization for group II strength in the standard of 2007, the same class I for specific sizing methods of calculating resistance was used to simulate the use of specific C60.
The teams noted that combining semiconducting molecules C60 with layered materials like graphene and hBN, they produced a unique material.
In this study, we explored the therapeutic in vivo effects of shungite against UVB-induced skin damage comparing the antioxidant power of mineral-rich shungite and mineral-less shungite with commercially available fullerene C60. We hypothesize that shungite might have possible antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage in hairless mice.
Buckminster Fuller have the same geometry, leading scientists to refer to C60 as 'buckminsterfullerene' or 'bucky balls.'...
IR-Fourier spectroscopic studies of structural changes in fullerenes C60 and C70-Toluene systems.