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any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.


See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).


A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, when fines content increases from 0% to 10%, volume percentage of cement in powdery materials in C30 concrete considerably drops from 100% to 79%, whereas that in C60 concrete decreases from 100% to 90%.
Coming from the same family lineage as high-performance TP52S, the design of the C60 is high volume with broad, uncluttered decks (of some five metres beam) making for efficient crew work in a refreshingly well laid out arrangement of deck hardware.
C60 particles were agglomerated during handling but partially deagglomerated when sonicated (Figure 3B and C, respectively).
The C60, C66, C70, C80 and C86 models have hydrostatic transmissions powered by Sauer-Danfoss pumps and motors with a working range of zero to 10 mph and a travel speed of zero to 20 mph.
Tandberg believes that the Profile and the Codec C60 will generate wide-spread interest in the region.
SonoSite also made improvements to its C60 abdominal transducer, which is available with MicroMaxx.
Climate Policy Uncertainty and Investment Risk, 144 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-03014-5, paper C75, PDF C60, e-mail: books@iea.
20pm on Friday on the C60 in Shadforth, County Durham, when the motorist was driving his blue Rover 214 along Church Lane.
It happened on the C60 road, Church Lane, Shadforth, County Durham, at 11.
The UT Health Science Center noted that C60, a spherical carbon molecule also known as a fullerene or "bucky ball," proved the exception, exhibiting no effect on human platelet aggregation and very little effect on rat thrombosis.
What we have found is that these C60 aggregates are pretty good antibacterial materials," says Hughes.