Calais

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Calais

(kälā`), city (1990 pop. 78,836), Pas-de-Calais dept., N France, in Picardy, on the Straits of Dover. An industrial center with a great variety of manufactures, it has been a major commercial seaport and a communications center with England since the Middle Ages. A major cross-channel ferry and hovercraft port, it is near the site of the Channel TunnelChannel Tunnel,
popularly called the "Chunnel," a three-tunnel railroad connection running under the English Channel, connecting Folkestone, England, and Calais, France. The tunnels are 31 mi (50 km) long. There are two rail tunnels, each 25 ft (7.
..... Click the link for more information.
 linking France with England. It was fortified (13th cent.) by the counts of Boulogne. In 1347, after a siege of 11 months, Calais fell to Edward III of England. A bronze monument by Rodin commemorates the famous episode of the six burghers who offered their lives to save the town; they were spared when Edward's queen, Philippa, interceded. The city remained in English hands until it was recovered (1558) by the French under François de Lorraine, the duke of Guise. It was the scene of much fighting (1940, 1944) in World War II. A Gothic church survived.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Calais

 

a city and port in northern France, on the Strait of Dover. Administrative center of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Population, 75, 000 (1968).

Calais is a transportation center of international importance, through which passes maritime passenger traffic to Dover in Great Britain. It is also a fishing and commercial center. There are metallurgical, ship-repair, electrotechnical, and chemical enterprises in the city. Calais also produces its traditional lace, tulle, and embroidery.

The city grew out of a fishing village in the late ninth and the tenth century. In the 13th century it was fortified by the Count of Boulogne. From the 13th century it played a significant role in the trade between France and England. In 1347, during the Hundred Years’ War, Calais was captured by the English after a lengthy siege; it remained a stronghold of the English in their later struggle against France. In 1558, Calais was captured by the Duke of Guise and reunited with France. The Cateau-Cam-bresis Peace of 1559 confirmed Calais as French.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Calais

a port in N France, on the Strait of Dover: the nearest French port to England; belonged to England 1347--1558. Pop.: 77 333 (1999)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
El desarrollo aldeano del FTA en estos oasis (Calar, Tulor y Coyo-Aldea), dada su relacion cronologica, habrian derivado de la fase anterior Tilocalar, de acuerdo a ciertos indicadores, aun en estudio, y que tienen que ver con la transferencia de tradiciones previas como la alfarera: tiestos delgados monocromos pulidos y brunidos, grises-negroscafe gruesos pulidos y alisados, revestidos, craquelados, con desgrasantes gruesos.
Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronoamico Hispano-Alemaan (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut fur Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC) Fernando Fabian Rosales-Ortega acknowledges the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) for financial support under the Programme Estancias Posdoctorales y Sabaaticas al Extranjero para la Consolidacioan de Grupos de Investigacioan, 2010-2012.
3.5-m Telescope 3.5 m f/3.5, 3.9, 10, 45 Ritchey-Chretien Horseshoe yoke Calar Alto, Spain 37[degrees] 13' N 2[degrees] 33' W 2,168 m The 3.5-m reflector at Calar Alto Observatory is operated by the German-Spanish Astronomical Center.
Carolyn and I rushed over to hear Hal finish reporting a stunning piece of news: observers using the 3.5-meter telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain had detected a hot plume rising above the limb of Jupiter just after the A impact.
The domes of Calar Alto, rose-colored in the twilight, will soon fade into the night.