congestive heart failure

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congestive heart failure,

inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time. Cardiac failure results from conditions, e.g., coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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, hypertensive heart disease (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), valvular insufficiency, and rheumatic heart disease, that interfere with the nutrition and oxygenation of the heart muscle itself. Congestive heart failure develops in 50% to 60% of patients with such disorders, and it can be either acute or chronic. If the heart has time to compensate, the heart muscle may become hypertrophic (enlarged); this is caused by structural changes that impede blood flow and impair the ability of the heart to relax. Eventually the great demand for oxygen by the heart muscle cells cannot be met, and cell death results. Either the left or right ventricle alone may fail first, although combined failure is most common and almost always eventually occurs. Left ventricular failure is marked by shortness of breath (dyspnea), often accompanied by cough; pulmonary congestion and edema are evident. Failure of the right ventricle produces systemic edema, reflecting hepatic and visceral engorgement. Diagnosis is often confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment of cardiac failure usually includes dietary changes, restrictions on physical activity, rest, oxygenation, measures to improve myocardial contractility, and correction of arrhythmias. Restriction on sodium intake and the administration of diuretics (the dosages of which depend on the patient's weight) are used to remove excess sodium and water from the body. Digitalisdigitalis
, any of several chemically similar drugs used primarily to increase the force and rate of heart contractions, especially in damaged heart muscle. The effects of the drug were known as early as 1500 B.C.
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 is often prescribed to increase the speed and force of cardiac contractions, and ACE inhibitorsACE inhibitor
or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
, drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertension), to treat congestive heart failure, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarction).
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 are used to decrease peripheral vascular resistance, making heart pumping easier and more effective.
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congestive heart failure

[kən′jes·tiv ′härt ‚fāl·yər]
(medicine)
A state in which circulatory congestion exists as a result of heart failure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study retrospectively selected 436 elderly patients who were hospitalized due to CHF for the first time in our hospital from October 2010 to October 2015.
The first term on the right hand side of (3) is the CHF at saturation, and the second term is the additional heat flux caused by subcooling.
The widely cited factors for the low enrolment in CHF include low economic status of the households (20-22); poor quality of health services in the health facilities, particularly shortage of drugs, lack of essential medical supplies, lack of diagnostic equipment, and long waiting hours among others.
Out of total 14 CHF positive patients, CVP was found to be 8-12 mmHg in 2 (14.28%) patients and was >12 mmHg in 12 (85.71%) patients.
There were six families having more than one child with CHF, out of which 2(33.3%) families had history of deaths of children with severe hematemesis.
The current study confirms a previous investigation undertaken by scientists in Germany and England of altered intestinal function in patients with CHF (JACC, July 16, 2007).
In a double-blind trial, 459 patients with chronic CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II or III), a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 40% or less for NYHA class II, or 45% or less for NYHA class III, and iron deficiency as defined above were randomly assigned to receive intravenous iron (200 mg per dose, as ferric) or placebo (saline).
We were unaware of previous studies assessing the cross-sectional differences in ANG between CHD patients complicating CHF or not to power our study.
In a first step a correlation analysis was performed at the week level to examine the correlation of the number of CHF deaths from Vital Records with the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Section weekly ILI surveillance data using Microsoft Excel software and Epi Info, version.
The Sudan CHF is a multi-donor pooled fund that assists the timely allocation and disbursement of funds to Sudan's most critical humanitarian needs.
Ireland has been a committed supporter of the CHF, contributing some $36.9 million since 2006S.
This report enables Pharmaceutical /Biotech companies, Academic institutes, Individual researchers, Investors, Medical technology companies, Service providers and other associated stake holders to identify and analyze the available licensing/collaborative opportunities in the CHF Drug market.