Lewis Carroll

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Carroll, Lewis,

pseud. of

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson,

1832–98, English writer, mathematician, and amateur photographer, b. near Daresbury, Cheshire (now in Halton). Educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, he was nominated to a studentship (life fellowship) in 1852, and he remained at Oxford for the rest of his life. Although his fellowship was clerical, Carroll never proceeded higher than his ordination as a deacon in 1861. Shy and afflicted with a stammer, he felt himself unsuited to the demanding life of a minister. He did, however, lecture in mathematics at Christ Church from 1855 until 1881. Among his mathematical works, now almost forgotten, is Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879).

Carroll is chiefly remembered as the author of the famous children's books Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1872), both published under his pseudonym and both illustrated by Sir John TennielTenniel, Sir John
, 1820–1914, English caricaturist and illustrator. He became well known for his original and good-humored political cartoons in Punch, with which he was associated from 1851 to 1901.
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. He developed these stories from tales he told to the children of H. G. Liddell, the dean of Christ Church College, one of whom was named Alice. Many of his characters—the Mad Hatter, the March Hare, the White Rabbit, the Red Queen, and the White Queen—have become familiar figures in literature and conversation. Although numerous satiric and symbolic meanings have been read into Alice's adventures, the works can be read and valued as simple exercises in fantasy. Carroll himself said that in the books he meant only nonsense. He also wrote humorous verses, the most popular of them being The Hunting of the Snark (1876). His later stories for children, Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893), though containing interesting experiments in construction, are widely regarded as failures.

Carroll remained a bachelor all his life. Partly because of his stammer he found association with adults difficult and was most at ease in the company of children, especially little girls, with whom he was clearly obsessed. Early in 1856 he took up photography as a hobby; his photographs of children are still considered remarkable.

Bibliography

See his complete works (ed. by A. Woolcott, 1939) and many recent editions; M. Gardner, ed., The Annotated Alice (1960, repr. 1970); S. Collingwood, Life and Letters (1898, repr. 1968); E. Wakeling, Lewis Carroll, Photographer (2002) and Lewis Carroll: The Man and his Circle (2015); biography by M. N. Cohen (1995, repr. 2015) and mathematical biography by R. Wilson (2008); studies by B. Clark (1988), R. Kelly (1990), J. Wullschläger (1995), and R. Douglas-Fairhurst (2015); critical essays ed. by H. Bloom (1987).

Carroll, Lewis

 

(pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). Born Jan. 27, 1832, in Daresbury; died Jan. 14, 1898, in Guildford. English writer. A professor of mathematics at Oxford University from 1855 to 1881, he devoted most of his attention to mathematical logic.

Carroll wrote the fairy-tale novella Alice in Wonderland (1865; Russian translation, 1923) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1871; Russian translation, 1924), which became beloved children’s books. His subsequent literary endeavors were unsuccessful. Writing ironically about the clichés in the tradition of “nonsense poetry,” Carroll at the same time presented a mocking depiction of late Victorian England in Alice. A visit to Russia in 1867 led to his book A Russian Diary.

WORKS

Phantasmagoria and Other Poems. London, 1869.
The Humorous Verses. London, 1950.
The Diaries of Lewis Carroll, vols. 1–2. London, 1953.
In Russian translation:
Alisa v strane chudes. Sofia, 1967.

REFERENCES

Vazhdaev, V. “L. Keroll i ego skazka.” Inostrannaia literatura, 1965, no. 7.
Kharitonov, V. “Ser’eznye chudesa.” Novyi mir, 1969, no. 1.
Lennon, F. B. The Life of Lewis Carroll. New York, 1962.
Sutherland, R. D. Language and Lewis Carroll. The Hague-Paris, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 236–238.)
References in classic literature ?
For it is manifest that the tie, moderately straightened, while adequate to hinder the blood already in the arm from returning towards the heart by the veins, cannot on that account prevent new blood from coming forward through the arteries, because these are situated below the veins, and their coverings, from their greater consistency, are more difficult to compress; and also that the blood which comes from the heart tends to pass through them to the hand with greater force than it does to return from the hand to the heart through the veins.
The person complied, and, coming forward at once, gave to view the form and features of no less an individual than Mr Ralph Nickleby himself.
Then Partington paid his score, and the yeomen coming forward, they all straightway departed upon their way.
The Trojans fell back as he threw, and the dart did not speed from his hand without effect, for it struck Melanippus the proud son of Hiketaon in the breast by the nipple as he was coming forward, and his armour rang rattling round him as he fell heavily to the ground.
said Haley, coming forward, and extending his hand to the big man.
Young Copperfield,' said Steerforth, coming forward up the room,
He's been to look at the flat," said the elder workman, coming forward.
He knew he was safe with her; but when there was a chance of a husband coming forward, who would ask for all that the law would give him, then her father thought it time to put a stop on it.
You can picture to yourself my mother, with her white hair done in some 18th century fashion and her sparkling black eyes, penetrating into those splendours attended by a sort of bald-headed, vexed squirrel - and Henry Allegre coming forward to meet them like a severe prince with the face of a tombstone Crusader, big white hands, muffled silken voice, half- shut eyes, as if looking down at them from a balcony.