CCD

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CCD

Abbrev. for charge-coupled device. A light-sensitive electronic detector, invented 1970, now widely used in ground- and space-based astronomy for imaging, photometry, spectroscopy, astrometry, etc. CCDs are normally sensitive over a wide range of wavelengths from blue light to near-infrared; developments have extended the range further into the IR (see infrared detectors), and into the ultraviolet and X-ray regions (to energies up to about 6 keV). A CCD is small (typically several square centimeters) compared with a photographic plate, and therefore covers a relatively small field of view. It also has a lower resolution than a fine-grained photographic emulsion. It does, however, have a much higher quantum efficiency – i.e. is a much more efficient detector – than emulsion; exposure times are therefore relatively much shorter. CCDs are thus well suited to the imaging of faint objects. They also have a linear response over a wide range of illumination, and in a properly designed and operating CCD system, the response is very stable over long timescales.

Astronomical CCDs are fabricated as a two-dimensional array of tiny pixels (picture elements) on a thin wafer of semiconductor, usually silicon; there may be up to several thousand rows and columns of pixels. When light or other radiation is directed onto this array, each pixel responds to the photons falling on it by producing electrons. Electric charge thus accumulates in each pixel in proportion to the amount of incident radiation. After an exposure, these packets of charge are shifted out of the array and the accumulated charge in each pixel is measured, row by row. The values are digitized and stored in a computer, and may be used to form an image on a computer screen or may be further manipulated or analyzed. There is a direct relationship between the intensity of the recorded image and the original exposure, hence the linear response. Noise is, however, introduced as the charges are moved out of the CCD, amplified, digitized, and stored in the computer, thus placing a lower limit on the signal that can be accurately recorded; this readout noise can be reduced by cooling the CCD.

CCD

(electronics)

CCD

CCD

(1) (Charge-Coupled Device) See CCD sensor.

(2) (Consumer Computing Device) An earlier term for a low-cost consumer-oriented computing product such as a PDA or Internet appliance.
References in periodicals archive ?
and its subsidiaries manufacture and market DRAMs, very fast SRAMs, Flash memory, TCAMs, CMOS image sensors, other semiconductor components and memory modules.
The large CMOS image sensor measurement area enables customers add custom circuitry for their applications, without compromising parallelism.
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As for image sensors, most of the manufacturers (except Japanese ones) adopt CMOS image sensors.
A new version of the IBIS5 CMOS image sensor with improved analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performance and a low-cost chip scale packaging option.
Tower's Advanced Photo Diode (APD) technology used in these CMOS image sensors enables improved optical and electrical performance of ultra-small pixels utilizing deep sub-micron process technologies, thus enabling the manufacturing of small, cost-effective camera module solutions.
SEOUL, South Korea -- Dongbu Electronics, Korea's largest pure-play foundry, today announced that it has collaborated with Silicon File Technologies, a Korean fabless company specializing in CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) design, to develop a new process that can implement 5 Megapixel CIS devices at the 130nm node.
IM103 CMOS Image Sensor for Machine Vision Automotive Applications Selected for Wide Dynamic Range Technology
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Micron's CMOS image sensor portfolio offers designers of virtually every image-capture application the flexibility, speed, resolution, feature set and innovative thinking to develop high-quality products.
SEOUL, South Korea -- Dongbu Electronics today disclosed it has been working closely with Silicon Valley based Foveon since Q4 of 2004 to support the fabless manufacturer's development of the world's highest resolution CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) devices.