cytomegalovirus

(redirected from CMV disease)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

cytomegalovirus

(sī'təmĕg'əlōvī`rəs), member of the herpesvirus family that can cause serious complications in persons with weakened immune systems and infants. A common virus, it is estimated that up to 80% of Americans carry cytomegalovirus by the time they reach adulthood. Most experience no symptoms or mild symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, low fever, and fatigue that may or may not be noticed. Cytomegalovirus is present in body fluids (saliva, semen, cervical secretions, and urine) and can be spread from person to person by sexual contact, kissing, or the sharing of food. It can also be transmitted from mother to fetus. The virus usually remains dormant in the body, but it can reactivate and cause serious symptoms in immunologically suppressed patients, such as those with AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
..... Click the link for more information.
, or in infants whose immune systems are not yet fully developed. An estimated 25% of AIDS patients experience CMV infection, often in the form of a viral retinitis that can lead to blindness. Infants can become infected before birth when the mother becomes infected or experiences a recurrence during pregnancy. In a newborn, CMV can be life-threatening, and it can lead to later complications such as cerebral palsy, blindness, hearing problems, mental retardation, and learning disabilities. The antiviral drugs foscarnet and ganciclovir are used to keep active infections under control.

cytomegalovirus

[¦sīd·ō¦meg·ə·lō′vī·rəs]
(virology)
An animal virus belonging to subgroup B of the herpesvirus group; causes cytomegalic inclusion disease and pneumonia.
References in periodicals archive ?
How understanding immunology contributes to managing CMV disease in immunosuppressed patients: now and in future.
Although all patients with significant CMV viremia were treated with antiviral therapy, not all patients with viremia were considered to have CMV disease of the gut.
The other 111 cases were receiving these drugs for treating CMV disease diagnosed by the patient's clinical symptoms and its confirmation by CMV serology tests.
Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with reactivated CMV disease, physicians may consider CMV testing, monitoring, and preemptive treatment in leukemic patients with high risk features who are undergoing chemotherapy.
Patients who developed clinically significant CMV infection, defined as the onset of CMV disease or initiation of anti-CMV preemptive therapy based on documented viremia (as measured by the central laboratory) and the clinical condition of the patient, discontinued study drug and received anti-CMV preemptive therapy.
However, this strategy is associated with higher cost, late CMV disease and delayed hematopoietic recovery due to antiviral chemotherapy resistance and toxicity (2,4,28).
The primary infection has a subclinical progress or manifests itself as mononucleosis syndrome in a normal host; however, in an immunocompromised host, primary infection may cause severe manifestations with fatal outcomes such as CMV disease (pneumonia, hepatitis, colitis, meningoencephalitis, crescentic glomerulonephritis, pancreatitis) ([9,10]).
Effect of delaying prophylaxis against CMV in D+/R- solid organ transplant recipients in the development of CMV-specific cellular immunity and occurrence of late CMV disease. J Infect.
Wills, "How understanding immunology contributes to managing CMV disease in immunosuppressed patients: now and in future," Medical Microbiology and Immunology, vol.
Intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) or oral valganciclovir (vGCV) is recommended as the first-line treatments for CMV disease within the transplant population [2].
Suppression of the cellular immune response is the major underlying predisposing factor for CMV disease.5 Our case was also under long-term immunosuppressive therapy.
Valganciclovir tablet is an anti-viral used in the treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and prevention of CMV disease in kidney, heart or kidney-pancreas transplant patients.