The researchers recruited a total of 240 AIDS patients right after their CMV retinitis
and pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were least encountered infection each accounting for 1%.
TABLE 1: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS PROFILE IN INDIAN PATIENTS Pulmonary tuberculosis 35-50% Oral candidiasis 30-40% Cryptosporidial diarrhea 20-40 % Pneumocystis jirovecii 5-15 % Herpes simplex 5-15% Herpes zoster 5-15% Toxoplasmosis 5-10 % Cryptococcal meningitis 4-8% CMV retinitis
2-5% TABLE 2: Opportunistic Infections prophylaxis for HIV-infected patients (OD=once daily, BD= twice daily).
Although CMV retinitis
is less common than other etiologic causes of acute visual loss in acute leukemia [17-19], high level of suspicion, timely diagnosis, and prompt treatment could prevent permanent visual loss .
We diagnosed the child of having bilateral eye CMV retinitis
based on typical fundus features and history of treated CMV colitis.
is a slow and progressive disease in patients with advanced stage HIV.
Permanent visual impairment in children with CMV retinitis
may be prevented by timely diagnosis and treatment.
Twenty one patients presented with CMV retinitis
in our study.
Interestingly, at that time, there was no hypothesis of eye tumor since the blind, painful eye was attributed to CMV retinitis
which is associated with extreme immune suppression and high viral load is the main cause of blindness in that population [8, 9].
Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), approximately 30% of patients with AIDS developed CMV retinitis
, which declined in 75% of cases after the start of HAART.
Differential diagnosis includes idiopathic endophthalmitis or systemic associations: parasitic (toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis), bacterial (tuberculosis, syphilis, Lyme disease, brucellosis, endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, cat-scratch disease), viral (CMV retinitis
, HIV microangiopathy), fungal (fungal infection has not been found), neurological (multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, Behget syndrome), rheumatic (spondyloarthropathies, juvenile arthritis), gastro-intestinal (Crohn disease, Whipple disease), sarcoidosis.