Conflicting results have been obtained in laboratory settings when treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor
was administered before or after induced seizures.
Today, there is evidence that natural herbal COX-2 inhibitors
obstruct the production of pain and inflammation, while treating other health conditions, in a more friendly, gentle manner--safely and cost-effectively.
Comparable to those in the US survey, almost one-fourth of respondents reported that they would choose COX-2 inhibitors
over traditional NSAIDs more commonly during prescribing.
After the Vioxx recall, other painkillers were prescribed to fill the gap, such as celecoxib (Celebrex), another COX-2 inhibitor
, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen, and opioid drugs.
This was the first publication in a major outlet to raise issues about increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with COX-2 inhibitors
in general and Vioxx in particular.
This study was focused on those recipients who were taking a COX-2 inhibitor
and as a result of the PAR switched to (1) an NSAID or a salicylate and associated costs to treat or prevent GI events with gastroprotectant drug therapy, and (2) another type of pain reliever other than COX-2 inhibitors
, NSAIDs, or salicylates.
Following an exhaustive review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the authors conclude that COX-2 inhibitors
are contraindicated in patients with ischaemic heart disease or stroke.
Cannon said he believed that all COX-2 inhibitors
increased that risk.
This may seem onerous considering that Cox-2 inhibitors
have typically been prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and are mainly used by the elderly, a population exhibiting risk factors for injuries attributed to Cox-2 inhibitor
use: heart attacks and strokes.
The study showed that, as expected, anti-inflammatories known as COX-2 inhibitors
doubled the risk of an attack, as did NSAIDs
The finding from the largest population study to date on NSAID risk applies not only to selective COX-2 inhibitors
, such as celecoxib (Celebrex), but also to nonselective NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen.
Celecoxib can be administered as palliative treatment to affected birds, but as with any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, COX-2 inhibitors
should be used cautiously because they can adversely affect renal function by decreasing renal prostaglandin synthesis.