Cree

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Cree,

Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly inhabited the area S of Hudson Bay and James Bay in what is now Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba S of the Churchill River. Members of one branch of the Cree, allying themselves with the Siouan Assiniboin, moved southwestward into buffalo territory and became the Plains Cree. It is probable that they introduced the method of hunting buffalo by driving them into enclosures, since the Woodland Cree used this method in hunting deer. The traditional culture and language of the Woodland Cree greatly resembles that of the OjibwaOjibwa
or Chippewa
, group of Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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.

A warlike tribe, the Cree were nevertheless friendly toward French and English fur traders, and their history is closely connected with the activities of the Hudson's Bay and the North West companies. They were powerful in the late 18th cent. until smallpox drastically reduced their population. In 1884 they were involved in the second Riel Rebellion (see Riel, LouisRiel, Louis
, 1844–85, Canadian insurgent, leader of two rebellions, b. Manitoba, of French and Métis parentage. In 1869–70 he led the rebels of the Red River settlements, mainly Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous descent) and indigenous
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), in Saskatchewan.

About 200,000 Cree live in 135 bands in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. They have the largest population and are spread over the largest geographic area of any aboriginal group in Canada. In the 1990s, Cree living in N Quebec waged strong opposition to the province's planned massive James Bay hydroelectric project, but in 2002 they negotiated an agreement with Quebec that permitted partial hydroelectric development, mining, and logging in exchange for jobs and $3.5 billion in financing (over 50 years). The agreement also recognized the autonomy of the Cree as a native nation. In 2012 they signed an agreement with Quebec to establish the Eeyou Istchee James Bay territory (largely the former Baie-James municipality), 114,801 sq mi (297,333 sq km), to be jointly governed by Crees and non-Cree residents. In 1990 there were over 8,000 Cree in the United States, some of them sharing a reservation in Montana with the Ojibwa.

Bibliography

See L. Mason, The Swampy Cree (1967); E. T. Denig, Five Indians Tribes of the Upper Missouri (1975).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cree

 

one of the Algonquian-speaking Indian tribes of North America.

In the 17th century they lived in the western part of the Labrador Peninsula; in the early 19th century they settled in the vast forest-plains territory of Canada. The Cree consisted of two culturally and historically different groups—the Plains Cree, who were mounted buffalo hunters, and the Forest Cree, who were hunting and fishing peoples. The Plains Cree were placed on reservations in the late 19th century, whereas the Forest Cree remained hunters and gradually changed to a settled way of life. Many of the modern Cree are employed as hired laborers. The Cree are formally Christians (Catholics), although they preserve elements of their ancient totemistic beliefs. The Cree population totaled more than 60,000 in 1967.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cree

(dreams)

The Mistassini Cree are a sub-Arctic people living in northern Quebec who attempt to carry on a lifestyle and culture that was traditionally built around hunting and trapping. The Cree have made some partial compromises with Canadian society by spending the summers at government outposts, but in the winters they live much as they did more than three hundred years ago, when Europeans first entered the area.

Particularly during the winter, the Cree are most interested in divinatory dreams as they relate to the hunt. Such divinatory dreams are not straightforward, in the sense that they most often require interpretation. For example, one of the most common rules of interpretation is that meeting a stranger of the opposite sex in a dream indicates a game animal. Events in the dream then serve as metaphors for what will happen during the hunt. For instance, in a study of the Mistassini Cree, Adrian Tanner includes the account of a man who dreamed he met an Eskimo woman who invited him to live with her. The man refused the invitation and later while hunting sighted a caribou, which he shot at but missed, and it got away.

The Cree also regard dreams as sources of creative inspiration and spiritual guidance. Tanner observes, for instance, that “power. is sometimes thought to arrive in dreams, in the form of formulae for songs, or shamanistic techniques, or ideas for the decoration of clothing or other objects” (p. 126—see Sources).

Thus, according to Tanner, dreams serve to connect ordinary daily activities with a spirit realm, giving one’s life a larger significance in the cosmic view of things.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the James Bay Agreement was signed, the Crees and Inuit of Northern Quebec were the first Aboriginal Nations to accept provisions for education and health and social services provided by Cree institutions set up under Quebec law.
One cree has been left a charred ruin and the other is badly damaged.
Charis Scott, who lives at High Close, said: "It's disappointing, but I suppose they can argue that there are already crees there now."
This joint venture between the Crees and Hydro Quebec serves to alleviate negative impacts from hydro projects and ensures economic prosperity for Crees.
* The Agreement is just another agreement between the Crees and Hydro-Quebec to approve yet another hydroelectric project.
The White Man's Gonna Getcha comes at a particularly auspicious time with further development poised to take place in James Bay following a new agreement recently signed between the Crees and the Government of Quebec (Agreement Concerning a New Relationship between Le Gouvernement du Quebec and the Crees of Quebec 2002).
The basis for the book was a legal study on Cree rights undertaken on behalf of the Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Astchee).
Three or four families hunt together, and everybody shares the catch/ "My friend may be more successful than I am," one Cree explains, "but he shares his catch with me, Next week I may be better." They practice natural conservation as they trap beaver, muskrat, lynx, marten, and mink, and come to the village only in summertime.
9 at age 58, carried his childhood values into the boardroom to establish unprecedented economic success for Northern Quebec Cree.
They claim to be the poor cousins of other Quebec Crees who got support for Cree culture and other services in the $225-million James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975.
He was also the prime mover and signatory of the James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement and the Cree-Naskapi Act on behalf of the Cree people of Northern Quebec.