(Computer Supported Telephony Application) An international standard interface between a network server and a telephone switch (PBX) established by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA).
The continuing drop in students taking AP CS is a serious warning sign about the state of computing in this country, as a student taking AP typically indicates his or her interest in majoring in that field in college or pursuing a career in that area," said Chris Stephenson, CSTA executive director, in a statement.
The consortium overseeing the studies is composed of the CSTA, the counties of San Bernardino and Kern, the cities of Lancaster and Palmdale, and the Western Commercial Space Center, a Central California organization that promotes private investment in space operations.
Additionally, the CSTA standards will enable Pennsylvania to develop its Computer Science Certifications Pathways, and will provide guidance on ways students can apply a computer science course toward a math or science graduation credit under Act 86 of 2016.
CSTA and ISTE, in collaboration with leaders from higher education, industry, and K-12 education, developed an operational definition of computational thinking as a problem-solving process that includes, but is not limited to, the following elements: (a) Formulating problems in a way that enables us to use a computer and other tools to help solve them; (b) Logically organizing and analyzing data; (c) Representing data through abstractions, such as, models and simulations; (d) Automating solutions through algorithmic thinking (i.