TNF-[alpha] levels peaked at 1 hour and they were detectable until the 2-hour time point (Figure 2(a)), while IL-6, CCL2, CXCL1
, and CXCL2 were still present at later time points (Figures 2(b), 2(c), 2(d), and 2(e)).
In our study, we also observed that SF-derived exosomes are able to stimulate the production of CCL20, CCL15, and CXCL1
chemokines by M1 macrophages.
Finally, group 4 included IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-16, IL-18, CCL5, CCL7, CCL27, CXCL1
, FGF, IFN-[alpha]2, IFN-[gamma], TNF-[alpha], TRAIL, and [beta]-NGF.
The potent antimicrobial chemokine CCL20 was investigated and compared with chemokines CCL2, CXCL1
, CXCL8, and CCL27 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1[alpha] and IL-6.
Women had about 20% less CCL25 and CCL26 than men, and 32% less CxCL1
ACOT2 CFD GCSH LACTB RASSF2 ACY1 CITED2 GJA4 LRP8 RSAD2 ADAMTS9 CRYAB GSTP1 LRRC58 RUNX2 ALCAM CTGF HACD4 NFKB1 SLC26A7 ANKRD9 CXCL1
HSD17B1 NR3C2 SMIM22 ARHGAP22 DGAT2 IGFBP5 NRIP3 SPARC BHLHE40 EGR1 IGFBP7 NUP107 STS BRAF EIF4E IRGQ OPRK1 TAZ CAMK1G ENPP1 JUN OSTALPHA TEKT4 CAMKK2 F10 KCNJ15 PBLD TG CD47 FAM13A KCNJ16 POMT1 TMEM140 CDA FGFR2 KCNK1 PRR5L TRIB1 CDH16 FOXE1 KRT14 RAB17 WBP2 CDH16 GALK2 KRT7 RASL10A WNT4
Last, astrocytes secrete proinflammatory (IL-6 and IL-1[beta]) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and chemokines (CCL2, CXCL1
, CXCL10, and CXCL12) through which they control microglia differentiation and macrophage activation [6-10].
Fifteen module-related DEGs marked as bold in Table 4 were thus obtained, including CXCL2, CXCL1
, BDKRB1, LPAR1, CXCL3, FYN, COL6A2, COL18A1, COL13A1, COL5A1, TUBA1A, FDFT1, SQLE, LSS, and CDK9.
Nicot et al., "NOV/CCN3 upregulates CCL2 and CXCL1
expression in astrocytes through beta1 and beta5 integrins," Glia, vol.
To test whether the cytokines identified in the conditioned media mediated the bladder cancer cell migration, media containing the following selected recombinant factors: interleukin-8 (IL8) at 10ng/ml, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1
) at 10 ng/ml, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) at 40 nM, interleukin6 (IL6) at 5ng/ml, fractalkine (CX3CL1) at 10ng/ml, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) at 1 ng/ml, was placed in the lower well of a Transwell system.
Among them, we found the principal components of major regulatory clusters, involving inflammatory responses (IFNy, IL6, several members of the interleukin 1 pathway, including ILIA, IL1B, IL1RN, and the TNF pathway members TNF, TNFAIP6, TNFSF15, TNFRSF9), angiogenesis (CXCL10, PTGS2), immune regulation (CD80, CD274, CSF3, IL23R), leukocyte chemotaxis (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL20, CCL23, CCL3L3, CXCL1
, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL9), transcriptional regulation (EGR1, GATA6, HEY1), proliferation (CDKN2B, FGFR1), adhesion (ITGB8), extracellular matrix remodeling (ADAMTS4), cell-cell communication (GJB2), cell signaling (EDNRB, IRS1, RIN2), ion transmembrane transport (KCNJ2, CLIC4), and response to oxidative stress (SOD2).
Sharma, "Increased serum CXCL1
and CXCL5 are linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, and impaired islet function," The Journal of Endocrinology, vol.