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IFN-[gamma], TNF, IL-6) and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10) than asymptomatic or uninfected individuals.
The downregulated CXCL9 (FC: -3.28) is a small cytokine related to the CXC chemokine family.
Major signaling pathways and effectors in liver fibrosis Pathway Effectors Growth factor signaling PDGF, TGF-[alpha], EGF, VEGF Fibrogenic signaling pathway TGF-[beta]1 Chemokine pathways CCR5, CCR1, CXCL4, CXCL9, CXCR3 Adipokine pathways Leptin, adiponectin Neuroendocrine pathways Cannabinoid and opioid signaling, thyroid hormones, serotonin CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: CXC chemokine ligand; CXCR: CXC chemokine receptor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor; TGF: transforming growth factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor
Strikingly, the M1 markers Cxcl9 and Nos2 and M2 marker Tgm2 were significantly upregulated in the macrophage populations of tumor-bearing mice (p = 0.00052 (Figure 2(b)), 4.2E-07 (Figure 2(c)), and 0.0025 (Figure 2(d)), respectively), displaying no clear transition in terms of polarization.
Our results demonstrated that increased MST1 contributes to the higher expressions of cytokines (TNF-[alpha]) and chemokines (I-309, ICAM-1, M-CSF, MCP-1, CCL3, CXCL12, CXCL2, CXCL9, and CXCL10), which play vital roles in neuroinflammation and early brain injury after SAH.
Methods: Meso scale discovery system and commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1[sz]; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 and CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatics and controls.
(10,42,64) This was initially discovered by Watanabe et al., who found that gastric and colon cancer cell lines produced a large amount of chemokines upon stimulation with NOD1 ligand and that these included chemokines with the C-X-C motif (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) that are dependent on type I IFN responses.
[12,14] Induction of the IFN-[alpha]-inducible CXCR3 ligands, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL [11] has been reported.
In addition to IL-5, IL-13 and IL-9, [O.sub.3] also caused greater increases in BAL CXCL1, IL-6, IL-2, eotaxin (CCL11), CSF3, IL-1a, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), CXCL10, LIF, RANTES, CXCL9, and CCL4 in the same cohort of [O.sub.3]-exposed isotype-treated db/db versus WT mice (Figure 2D-P).
They also had higher levels of CXCL9, platelet endothelial cell adhesion mole-1 (PECAM-1), prolactin, and glucagon and lower levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 than T2DM.
On the other hand, sarcoidosis is associated with increased IFN-[gamma]-inducible chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, which correlate with severity in lung function as measured by DLCO and PFT [42].