Tumors with KIR3DL2 mutations expressed low levels of CXCL5 and its receptor CXCR1
and CXCR2, a potential mechanism of resistance to tipifarnib.
CXCL8 is a ligand for CXCR1
and CXCR2 which are secreted by the cancer cells.
Mature neutrophils in the circulation can be rich in various receptors, such as CXCR1
, CXCR2, FcI3R (Fc gamma receptor) and other receptors (Russo et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2016) (Fig.
According to the company, the SX-682 is a clinical-stage oral allosteric small-molecule inhibitor of CXCR1
and CXCR2 (CXCR1/2), a combined "master switch" of the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment.
Chemokine receptor of interleukin 8 C-X-C motif (CXCR1
) is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and is associated with the inflammatory response to gram-negative bacterial infections .
Inflammation causes increased interleukin 8 synthesis, which in turn interacts with chemokine receptor CXCR1
to attract neutrophils to the site of inflammation.
A lower surface expression of CXCR1
, a receptor for IL-8, was observed on NK cells in elderly donors although the percentage of CXCR1+ NK cells was maintained .
On the contrary, M2 macrophages have been demonstrated to express high levels of dectin-1, DCSIGN (CD209), mannose receptor (CD206), scavenger receptor A, scavenger receptor B-1, CD163, CCR2, CXCR1
, and CXCR2  and to produce a large amount of IL-10, YM1, macrophage and granulocyte inducer-form 1 (MgI1), and arginase-1, highlighting their relevance during tissue remodelling and repair .
Among all protein receptors measured, CXC3R1 showed the highest relative expression, whereas the common receptor for IL8/CXCL8, GRO/CXCL1, 2, and 3, NAP2/CXCL7 and ENA78/CXCL5 (CXCR1
, CXCR2), MCP1/CCL2 (CCR2), and RANTES/CCL5 (CCR3) receptors did not have detectable expression (Figure 5).
IL-8 and its receptors CXCR1
and CXCR2 have been described in zebrafish , and silencing of IL-8 expression in zebrafish inhibited vascular development .
Factors that are increased in patients with adenomyosis compared to normal fertile women include hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a) and interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) as well as IL-8 receptors CXCR1
and CXCR2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whereas factors being decreased include leukemia inhibiting factor (LIF), LIF receptor a, and IL-11 .