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a structure for transporting freight and passengers in which a cable stretched between supports is used to move gondolas or chairs. Cableways are usually built in mountainous or broken country or in other locations where surface travel is difficult, in locations where the shortest possible crossing of a highway, railroad, river, or lake must be provided, and in cities with well-developed surface transportation. A distinction is made among freight, passenger, and combined cableways and, according to design, between two-cable and single-cable cable-ways, with loop or shuttle movement of the cars.
Freight cableways are usually built with a two-cable loop design. The carriage of a gondola rolls on a stationary supporting cable. The gondolas are moved by a traction cable. The length of such cableways is virtually unlimited, since they are composed of consecutively connected independent sections (6-12 km). Some freight cableways in Switzerland are 200 km long, with an angle of elevation of up to 30°. A loop cableway is capable of transporting 30-500 tons (in a few cases, up to 1,000 tons) of freight per hour at car speeds of 1.5-3.3 m/sec. For shorter distances, two-cable shuttle cableways are built; they have one or two gondolas that carry up to 150 tons of freight per hour at a speed of up to 10 m/sec. The length of such a cableway is up to 3 km; the maximum angle of elevation is 45°. In single-cable cableways the cars are connected to and move with the cable at speeds of 1 to 2.5 m/sec. The cars usually move on a loop route. The capacity of single-cable cableways is 10-150 tons per hr, and the maximum angle of elevation is 25°. Freight cableways are used in many chemical industries and in ore mining.
Passenger cableways are usually of a two-cable design. Cable-ways built as a shuttle usually have one or two cars, each designed for 12 to 100 passengers. Cableways built as a loop usually have cars designed for four passengers. In passenger cableways the safety of operation is provided by a braking cable, a double traction cable, or the use of a braking device, which engages the supporting cable if the traction cable breaks. Passenger cable-ways can be up to 12 km long; lifting is possible up to a height of 3 km; and car speed is from 1.5 to 11 m/sec. There are also single-cable (usually loop-type) cableways with rigidly mounted one- or two-passenger seats, which the passengers can occupy or leave while the cableway is in motion. Such cableways are built mainly in mountainous resort areas (Austria, Switzerland, Italy, France, and Japan). In the USSR cableways are operated in the Crimea and the Caucasus (for example, in Priel’ brus’e, Kabarda-Balkar ASSR), and in Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk. They transport 200-1,000 passengers per hour at speeds of 1 to 2.5 m/sec, over distances from 0.6 to 2 km and through level differences of 0.5 km. Single-cable ski tows are widely used. The skier is moved at a speed of 1.5 m/sec, while standing on skis and supported by a spring suspension attached to the traction cable. During the summer some ski tows are coverted to chair lifts. Cableways may be used for simultaneous transportation of freight and passengers. Such combined cableways are particularly efficient in logging and mining operations. In addition to suspension-type cableways, land cableways (cable hoists) are being introduced (1970). Such installations make possible, for example, the movement of loaded vehicles on steep inclines or the passage of ships through dams (instead of the usual method, through locks).
REFERENCESBaramidze, K. M., and I. Ia. Kogan. Passazhirskie podvesnye kanatnye dorogi. Moscow, 1962.
Belaia, N. M., and A. G. Prokhorenko. Kanatnye lesotransportnye ustanovki. Moscow, 1964.
Dukel’skii, A. I. Podvesnye kanatnye dorogi i kabeVnye krany, 4th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Mashiny nepreryvnogo transporta. Edited by V. I. Plavinskii. Moscow, 1969.
V. S. KIREEV