From January to March 2005 (first rainy period): in the Cabo Branco reef, Paraiba State (7[degrees]08'44"S, 34[degrees]47'43"W) where 530 colonies of Siderastrea spp.
From September 2007 to June 2008: in the Cabo Branco (7[degrees]08'44"S, 34[degrees]47'43"W) and Picaozinho reefs (7[degrees]07'30"S, 34[degrees]48'28"W), Paraiba State, where 60-70 colonies at depths of near 1 m were analyzed monthly, to check the seasonal effects the climatologic changes on the PPA appearance in a same reef.
In all sites the water temperatures (mercury thermometer, [+ or -] 0.5[degrees]C) and salinities (portable refractometer, American Optical) were measured at the Cabo Branco and Picaozinho reefs during the fieldwork and the monthly rainfall at Joao Pessoa City was obtained from AESA-PB (2009).
Fragments of 10 unbleached (brown) colonies and 10 pink (bleached colonies) haphazardly selected, were collected during January and February 2005 in shallow waters of the infralittoral zone at Cabo Branco reef and transported in plastic bags containing sea water to the laboratory for zooxanthellae analysis (densities and chlorophyll-a) and culturable and total bacteria counts.
More detailed investigations along the Cabo Branco and Picaozinho reefs undertaken in 2007 and 2008 demonstrated that pink pigmentation was common in Siderastrea colonies, with high numbers of pink colonies in March, April, and May (Fig.
The Siderastrea of the reef of Cabo Branco were the most affected at March 2008, when up to 92% of the shallow water colonies showed alterations of pigmentation pattern.
collected at Cabo Branco reef (Paraiba State) revealed significantly reduced numbers of zooxanthellae (df = 30; t = 7.498; P = 0.000; Fig.
The local differences in seasonal pattern of the PPA colonies as observed in Cabo Branco and Picaozinho reefs (Paraiba State) during periods without occurrence of thermal anomalies indicate other conditions for bleaching, ii) all studied sites are quite ecologically similar regarding the substrate, depth, solar radiation exposure, seasonal rains and temperature, indicating that such variables may not have strong influence on coral bleaching.
were observed on the coastal reefs of Cabo Branco in the summer of 2005, and then again in 2007-2008.
at different depths of Cabo Branco reefs, Paraiba State, registered during February and March 2005.
in the reefs of a) Cabo Branco and b) Picaozinho Paraiba State, in the period from September 2007 to June 2008.