cockatoo

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parrot

parrot, common name for members of the order Psittaciformes, comprising nearly 400 species of colorful birds, pantropical in distribution, including the parakeets. Parrots have large heads and short necks, strong feet with two toes in front and two in back (facilitating climbing and grasping), and strong, thick bills, with the larger hooked upper mandible hinged to the bones of the head. They are arboreal, typically feeding (depending on the species) on seeds, fruits, nectar, pollen, and arthropods, but a few species, such as the kea (Nestor notabilis) of New Zealand, will prey on birds and animals. Parrots are notable for their intelligence, with a number of species known to have toolmaking, puzzle-solving, or number skills. They feed their young by regurgitation, and they have swellings (ceres) at the base of the nostrils.

Usually their voices are harsh, but the thick, fleshy tongue and special voice apparatus permit a wide range of articulations, and some species can be taught to imitate the human voice. The best mimics are the African gray parrots, Psittacus erithacus, and the Amazons, genus Amazona. In size parrots range from the 31-2-in. (8.7-cm) pygmy parrot of the South Pacific to the 40-in. (100-cm) hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) of South America, while in build they vary from the stocky lovebirds, e.g., the yellow-collared, or masked, lovebird (Agapornis personata), to the slender lories, e.g., the purple-naped lory (Lorius domicella) and the cockatoo. The flightless kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) of New Zealand is the heaviest, weighing up to 9 lb (4 kg), and one of the longest lived, with a lifespan of up to 120 years. The plumage is typically brilliant, the bodies solid green, yellow, red, white, or black with contrasting red, yellow, or blue on the head, wings, and tail.

The cockatoos, crested parrots native to the Australian region, may be pink, white with yellow or scarlet crests, or dark-plumaged, like the great black, or palm, cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus. They eat insects and are also able to crack extremely hard nuts. The smaller cockatiels are gray with yellow heads. The large, long-tailed macaws are found in the rain forests of Central and South America. The species are named for their gaudy colors, e.g., the scarlet (Ara macao), blue-and-yellow (A. ararauna), and red-and-green, or green-winged, macaws (A. chloropterus). In captivity adult macaws may be vicious. In the wild they travel in pairs. The small Old World parrots known as lovebirds are so named for the apparent fondness of the mates for one another. The Australasian lories and the smaller lorikeets feed on fruits and nectar.

Parrots are popular as cage birds, but they require intellectual stimulation, and many species can become aggressive as they mature if improperly raised. Care also should be exercised by selecting birds with known histories, since even apparently healthy birds may be carriers of infectious psittacosis, or parrot fever. Captive parrots that have been released or escaped have become established and even invasive in some areas, such as the monk parakeet in New York City, peach-faced lovebirds in Arizona, and a number of species in S California.

Parrots are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Psittaciformes, superfamilies Psittacoidea, Cacatuoidea, and Strigopoidea.

Bibliography

See study by J. M. Corshaw (1973).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cockatoo

 

a bird of the subfamily Kakatoeinae of the family Psittacidae. The body measures 60– cm long. A characteristic feature is the crest on the head. Cockatoos are found from the islands of Kalimantan and Flores, the Philippines, and New Guinea to the Solomon Islands, Australia, and Tasmania. There are five genera: Probosciger, Calyptorhynchus, Callocephalon, Kakatoe, and Nymphicus. These genera comprise 17 species. The birds live in forests, often near fields, and stay in flocks. They eat fruits and seeds, and their powerful beaks are capable of cracking even the very hard fruits of palm trees. In some places cockatoos seriously damage crops. They build their nest in tree hollows or in fissures of cliffs. The large cockatoos lay two or three white

Table 1. Composition of coal tar
FractionOutput (% of tar bulk)Boiling point (°C)Density at 20°C (kg per cu m)Recoverable substances
Light…………0.2–0.8To 170900–960Benzene and its homologues
Phenol…………1.7–2.0170–2101,000–1,010, 010Phenols, pyridine bases
Naphthalene……8.0–10.0210–2301,010–,1,020Naphthalence, thionapthene
Heavy (absorbring)….8.0–10.0230–2701,050–1,070Methyl naphthalenes, acenaphthene
Anthracene……20.0–25.0270–360(and to 400)1,080–1,130Anthracene, phenanthrene, carbazole, others
Pitch………50.0–65.0Over 3601,200–1,300Pyrene and other highly condensed aromatic compounds

eggs; the small birds of the genus Nymphicus lay five or six eggs.Cockatoos are often kept in cages.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cockatoo

any of various parrots of the genus Kakatoe and related genera, such as K. galerita (sulphur-crested cockatoo), of Australia and New Guinea. They have an erectile crest and most of them are light-coloured
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Mortality and dispersal of juvenile galahs, Cacatua roseicapilla, in the Western Australian wheatbelt.--Aust.
Troglochernes dewae has been collected solely from bird nests, including that of the Galah (Cacatua roseicapilla), Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (C.
Keepers at the Birmingham Nature Centre discovered the two endangered cacatua sulphurea birds worth pounds 3,500 a pair missing from their home on Saturday morning.
The birds - scientific name Cacatua Sulphurea - are described as having white feathers, with a yellow crest, grey feet, and are 33cm tall.
Among the allegedly poached birds were endangered yellow-crested cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea) and red and blue lorys (Eos histrio).
magnificus] banksii) may breed in the center of the continent, like the galah (Eulophus [=Cacatua] roseicapillus), a roseate cockatoo, and the pink or Leadbeater's cockatoo (Cacatua leadbeateri), the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), the Port Lincoln parrot (Platycercus [=Barnardius] zon-arius), which is totally absent from eastern Australia, or the mulga parrot (Psephotus varius), which has the same geographical distribution as the mulga (Acacia aneura), a species of acacia, although it does not depend on it for nesting or feeding.
Buckland (1982) applied formal capture-recapture models to data for Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and Galahs (Cacatua roseicapilla), and found no evidence of senescent increases in mortality for either species.
However, no such correlation was found in another parrot species, the Long-billed Corella (Cacatua pastinator pastinator; Smith 1991), or in several other bird species (Lack 1966, Woolfenden 1978, Ross and McLaren 1981, Stromborg et al.