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(invertebrate zoology)
The caddis flies, an aquatic order of the class Insecta; larvae are wormlike and adults have two pairs of well-veined hairy wings, long antennae, and mouthparts capable of lapping only liquids.



(caddis flies), an order of aquatic insects that undergo complete metamorphosis. Caddis flies have two pairs of wings with reduced venation, one pair of filiform antennae, and poorly developed mouth organs. The body and wings are covered with hairs; the coloration is brown or yellowish brown. The body length is 1.5–25 mm, and the wingspread is 5–70 mm. Of the approximately 5,500 species of caddis flies, about 600 are found in the USSR.

Caddis flies have an interesting life cycle. Annular, cylindrical, or discoid gelatinous egg-clutches are deposited on underwater plants and rocks. After hatching, the larvae move about the bottom and soon start feeding and constructing cases or snaring nets. They molt four to six times. The campodeiform larvae of the suborder Annulipalpia have flattened abdomens and deep strangulations between body segments. The majority, mostly predators, live freely without cases; they construct snaring nets (Polycentropus), funnels (Neureclipsis), or chambers (Hydropsyche). The caterpillar-like larvae of the suborder Integ-ripalpia have cylindrical abdomens and superficial strangulations between body segments. They live in cases made from mineral or vegetable particles; the cases are in the form of tubes or, less frequently, little caverns.

Before pupation, the larvae of all species of caddis flies build themselves a case with openings for water circulation. At first the pupa lives in the case, but later it gnaws through the top with its mandibles and swims to the surface. It swims by mean of its second pair of long legs. The pupa finally crawls out of the water and is transformed into the adult fly.

The larvae of caddis flies live in the clear waters of lakes, rivers, and streams. Hence, they serve as indicators of water quality. Adults stay near the water, amid vegetation. The larvae are important as food for whitefish, grayling, European bream, tench, Eurasian perch, ides, and other fishes that feed on benthos.


Martynov, A. V. “Rucheiniki.” In Prakticheskaia entomologiia, fasc. 5. Leningrad, 1924.
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada kol’chatoshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 1.)
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada tsel’noshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 2.)
Kachalova, O. L. Rucheiniki rek Latvii. Riga, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
Light-trapping of caddisflies at the Thaya (Lower Austria), a river influenced by pulsating hypolimnetic water release.
Studies of Neotropical caddisflies, LIII: a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Curgia of the genus Chimarra (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae).
The total abundance of individuals and relative abundance of caddisflies, EPT and water beetles larvae was negatively correlated with N total in water, and molluscs showed an opposite trend in relation to N total in water (Table 3).
Some significant differences between communities of caddisflies among the seven regions were detected.
Studies of Neotropical caddisflies, I: Rhyacophilidae and Glossosomatidae (Trichoptera).
Stewart decided to investigate caddisflies after Christy Geraci of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.
Then Glenn Wiggins, arguably the ROM's most distinguished life science curator ever, published ground-breaking research on caddisflies.
The emergence of the caddisflies (Trichoptera Insecta) from the Central African mountain stream kalengo.
Data supporting this hypothesis exist for many insect larvae including caddisflies, lacewings, tortoise beetles, and assassin bugs, as well as sea urchins and decorator crabs (reviewed in Berke et al.
Enhanced throughout with full color photography, aspiring fly fishing anglers will learn time-saving tips and material preparation for such lures as caddisflies, mayflies, midges, stoneflies, saltwater flies, streamers, terrestrials, and attractors.
The goal of the present investigation was to survey the accessible streams on the Reservation using light traps to capture adult insects and to assess the diversity of caddisflies present.