Trichoptera

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Trichoptera

[trə′käp·tə·rə]
(invertebrate zoology)
The caddis flies, an aquatic order of the class Insecta; larvae are wormlike and adults have two pairs of well-veined hairy wings, long antennae, and mouthparts capable of lapping only liquids.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trichoptera

 

(caddis flies), an order of aquatic insects that undergo complete metamorphosis. Caddis flies have two pairs of wings with reduced venation, one pair of filiform antennae, and poorly developed mouth organs. The body and wings are covered with hairs; the coloration is brown or yellowish brown. The body length is 1.5–25 mm, and the wingspread is 5–70 mm. Of the approximately 5,500 species of caddis flies, about 600 are found in the USSR.

Caddis flies have an interesting life cycle. Annular, cylindrical, or discoid gelatinous egg-clutches are deposited on underwater plants and rocks. After hatching, the larvae move about the bottom and soon start feeding and constructing cases or snaring nets. They molt four to six times. The campodeiform larvae of the suborder Annulipalpia have flattened abdomens and deep strangulations between body segments. The majority, mostly predators, live freely without cases; they construct snaring nets (Polycentropus), funnels (Neureclipsis), or chambers (Hydropsyche). The caterpillar-like larvae of the suborder Integ-ripalpia have cylindrical abdomens and superficial strangulations between body segments. They live in cases made from mineral or vegetable particles; the cases are in the form of tubes or, less frequently, little caverns.

Before pupation, the larvae of all species of caddis flies build themselves a case with openings for water circulation. At first the pupa lives in the case, but later it gnaws through the top with its mandibles and swims to the surface. It swims by mean of its second pair of long legs. The pupa finally crawls out of the water and is transformed into the adult fly.

The larvae of caddis flies live in the clear waters of lakes, rivers, and streams. Hence, they serve as indicators of water quality. Adults stay near the water, amid vegetation. The larvae are important as food for whitefish, grayling, European bream, tench, Eurasian perch, ides, and other fishes that feed on benthos.

REFERENCES

Martynov, A. V. “Rucheiniki.” In Prakticheskaia entomologiia, fasc. 5. Leningrad, 1924.
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada kol’chatoshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 1.)
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada tsel’noshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 2.)
Kachalova, O. L. Rucheiniki rek Latvii. Riga, 1972.

O. L. KACHALOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Composition and flight periodicity of adult caddisflies in New Zealand hill-country catchments of contrasting land use.
Rasmussen, Species diversity and ecology of Trichoptera (Caddisflies) and Plecoptera (Stoneflies) in Ravine ecosystems of Northern Florida [Ph.D.
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The number of EPT taxa was lower at Sites 3 and 4, with the primary EPT taxa observed at Site 3 being caddisflies (Trichoptera).
They eat a wide variety of organisms, with aquatic insects such as dragonfly larvae, midges, mayflies and caddisflies making up the bulk of their diet.
Most of the species are aquatic insects, represented by immature stages of mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, flies, and beetles.
There is also a lack of bankside vegetation providing cover, food and shade, especially important for invertebrates such as mayfly, stoneflies and caddisflies which many fish and birds such as the dipper, depend upon.
They hope to see up to 100 different moth species, plus many beetles and caddisflies.
We examined assemblages of caddisflies from 93 sites on streams during summers (May-September) of 2003 and 2004 to test whether a priori defined regions have discrete communities of caddisflies across the semi-arid landscape of the Lower Colorado River Basin, and to determine which species make the greatest contribution to assemblages in these discrete communities.