Caddo

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Caddo

(kăd`ō), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). These people gave their name not only to the linguistic branch but also to the Caddo confederacy, a loose federation of tribes that in prehistoric times occupied lands from the Red River valley in Louisiana to the Brazos River valley in Texas and N into Arkansas and Kansas. Members, besides the Caddo, included the ArikaraArikara
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent.
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, the PawneePawnee
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). At one time the Pawnee lived in what is now Texas, but by 1541, when Coronado visited Quivira, they seem to have been settled in the
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, the WichitaWichita
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). They formerly occupied central Kansas and ranged into Oklahoma and Texas.
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, and others. The culture of these loosely knit peoples was similar. Generally they were sedentary, living in villages of conical huts, although they did raise horses. The culture of the Caddo proper was marked by a clearly defined system of social stratification and by a religion that closely regulated daily life. Some now reside on tribal land in Oklahoma. In 1990 there were 3,000 Caddo in the United States.

Bibliography

See J. T. Hughes, Prehistory of the Caddoan-Speaking Tribes (1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
Newkumet and Meredith also stressed that up until recently the Caddos had lived in a more extended range beyond their leased portion of Indian Territory that was about to become the state of Oklahoma.
To secure Spanish control, he also instructed them to plant Spanish missions among the Caddos. Initial meetings between the Spanish and the Hasinais went well.
When a Hasinai died, the Caddos buried the corpse with necessities to get to the other side, a place in the sky where all the Hasinais would meet, and their priests would urge them on.
Some Caddos became convinced that the Franciscan's application of water had caused the epidemic that killed more than three hundred Hasinais, about 10 percent of the population.
The young man had been among the French settlers in Fort Saint Louis and lived with the Cenis Caddos after La Salle's murder.
On the contrary, just a few years after Talon's stay, and about three years after founding the missions among the Hasinais, the Caddos had become so hostile that Father Massanet decided to abandon the Texas missions.
According to Massanet's explication, the Caddos associated their god with the sun and horticultural activities; the Spanish god provided metal tools and cloth.
The Caddos made offerings to this "first deity," a "Great Captain" who could favor and punish.
Todd Smith, The Caddos, the Wichitas, and the United Smtes, 1846-1901 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996).
Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--a'hat.
In Caddo Indians: Where We Came From, ethnohistorian and Caddo Cecile Elkins Carter documented a disjuncture between Caddo ways of doing history and her academic education.
Should we privilege Catholic priests, Western anthropologists, Caddo leaders, or late twentieth-century Caddo musicologists?