Caddo

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Caddo

(kăd`ō), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). These people gave their name not only to the linguistic branch but also to the Caddo confederacy, a loose federation of tribes that in prehistoric times occupied lands from the Red River valley in Louisiana to the Brazos River valley in Texas and N into Arkansas and Kansas. Members, besides the Caddo, included the ArikaraArikara
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent.
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, the PawneePawnee
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). At one time the Pawnee lived in what is now Texas, but by 1541, when Coronado visited Quivira, they seem to have been settled in the
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, the WichitaWichita
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). They formerly occupied central Kansas and ranged into Oklahoma and Texas.
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, and others. The culture of these loosely knit peoples was similar. Generally they were sedentary, living in villages of conical huts, although they did raise horses. The culture of the Caddo proper was marked by a clearly defined system of social stratification and by a religion that closely regulated daily life. Some now reside on tribal land in Oklahoma. In 1990 there were 3,000 Caddo in the United States.

Bibliography

See J. T. Hughes, Prehistory of the Caddoan-Speaking Tribes (1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Caddos always had doctors (called conna in the earliest historical records), but every once in awhile an especially dominant medicine man (or nei'di, according to Parsons) would come along--such was Strongwind, his brother, and the Mountain Bears.
By 1835 the population had dropped dramatically, and the Caddos were left with three groups consisting of Kadohadachos, Hainais, and Nadacos (or Anadarkos).
In the late 1700s several Caddoan-speaking Wichita groups had moved south of the Red River into former Caddo homelands, where they maintained close ties to the Texas and Louisiana Caddos.
In the end, it makes sense that the Caddos left different accounts--not to mention stories not remembered--as various Caddos and others added their traditions and beliefs to the mix.
Certainly (as we will see), some Caddos chose to reject Christian beliefs, but the record does not reflect this for all Caddos.
In Dorsey's (and White Bread's) chapter "The Second Man Who Came out of the Earth," Tonin was a small man who rode a horse the size of a dog and left the Caddos for six summers and winters.
In a more circular view of history, the Caddos could build on beliefs; but Dorsey's search for traditions deemphasized a living culture influenced by Western missionaries and soldiers.
As Newkumet and Meredith explained it, the Caddo "Drum Dance" that explained the sun's origins had always depicted the history of the Caddos, even before contact.
Despite their position that the Drum Dance represented an ancient tradition, Newkumet and Meredith themselves recognized a loss of knowledge among many Caddos during the twentieth century.
This dance allowed the Caddos to move "through their history each time the dance is performed.
Newkumet and Meredith also stressed that up until recently the Caddos had lived in a more extended range beyond their leased portion of Indian Territory that was about to become the state of Oklahoma.
Unlike Newkumet and Meredith, Leon Carter observed how Caddos had modified these sacred songs.