grasshopper

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grasshopper,

name applied to almost 9,000 different species of singing, jumping insectsinsect,
invertebrate animal of the class Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda. Like other arthropods, an insect has a hard outer covering, or exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed legs. Adult insects typically have wings and are the only flying invertebrates.
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 in two families of the order Orthoptera. Grasshoppers are long, slender, winged insects with powerful hind legs and strong mandibles, or mouthparts, adapted for chewing. They range from 1-2 to 4 in. (1–10 cm) in length. They have a front pair of rigid wings and a hind pair of larger, membranous wings, often brightly colored. When the wings are at rest, the hind pair folds and is covered by the front pair. Some species fly well, others poorly or not at all. There are three pairs of legs, all used for walking. The muscular hind legs are also used for jumping and for initiating flight. Grasshoppers can jump up to 20 times their body length. In most species the singing, or stridulating, is performed only by the males. Both sexes possess auditory organs.

The long-horned grasshoppers (family Tettigoniidae) are characterized by antennae longer than the body and auditory organs on the forelegs. This family includes the katydidskatydid,
common name of certain large, singing, winged insects belonging to the long-horned grasshopper family (Tettigoniidae) in the order Orthoptera. Katydids are green or, occasionally, pink and range in size from 1 1-4 to 5 in. (3–12.5 cm) long.
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. The short-horned grasshoppers (family Acrididae) are characterized by antennae shorter than the body and auditory organs on the abdomen. This group includes the locustlocust,
in zoology, name for certain migratory members of the short-horned grasshopper family (Acrididae). Like other members of this family, locusts have antennae shorter than their bodies, song-producing organs on the forewings and hind legs, and hind legs well developed for
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. Pygmy grasshoppers (family Tetrigidae) are less than 3-4 in. (20 mm) in length.

Most grasshoppers mate in the fall, after which the female lays the eggs in the ground or in plant tissues. The eggs of most species hatch in the spring. Newly hatched grasshoppers are similar to the adults except for their smaller size and lack of wings. After several molts, in which the young shed their old body coats and grow new ones, the winged adult stage is attained.

Most grasshoppers are plant feeders, attacking crops such as wheat, barley, corn, rye, and oats. The migratory grasshoppers, including the locusts, are a serious threat to agriculture. A few long-horned grasshoppers are carnivorous. Grasshoppers are typically found in temperate regions. They are classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Orthoptera.

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grasshopper

[′gras‚häp·ər]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for a number of plant-eating orthopteran insects composing the subfamily Saltatoria; individuals have hindlegs adapted for jumping, and mouthparts adapted for biting and chewing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Grasshopper

sings through summer, overlooking winter preparations. [Gk. Lit.: Aesop’s Fables, “Ant and the Grasshopper”]

grasshopper

sings instead of storing away food. [Animal Symbolism: Mercatante, 108]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

grasshopper

any orthopterous insect of the families Acrididae (short-horned grasshoppers) and Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers), typically terrestrial, feeding on plants, and producing a ticking sound by rubbing the hind legs against the leathery forewings
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Frequency of Number of Occurrence (%) in Name Occurrences Total Scats (N = 50) Meadow sole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) 14 28 Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) 10 20 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) 10 20 Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 9 18 Beetle (Coleoptera) 6 12 Unknown Small Mammal 6 12 Unknown Large Mammal 6 12 Plant Material 5 10 Unidentified hair (Mammalia) 3 6 Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) 2 4 Beech Nut (Fagus grandifolia) 1 2 Criticidae * (Muridae) 1 2 Grasshopper (Caelifera) 1 2 Seeds (Panicum sp.) 1 2 Woodpecker (Picoides sp.) 1 2 * Formerly known as Criticidae in Moore and others (1974) hair identification key, now known as Muridae.
Nattier R, Robillard T, Amedegnato C, Couloux A, Cruad C, Desutter-Grandcolas L (2011) Evolution of acoustic communication in the Gomphocerinae (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Acrididae).
ictus y (3) reportamos como dominantes a dos ortopteros del suborden Caelifera: S.
Tan MK (2012a) Orthoptera in the Bukit Timan and Central Catchment Nature Reserves (Part 1): Suborder Caelifera. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University Singapore, Singapore, 40 pp.
Rowell CHF (2013) The grasshoppers (Caelifera) of Costa Rica and Panama.
Para la identificacion de los ortopteros se utilizaron: las claves e ilustraciones de Rentz (1996) para la determinacion de familias y subfamilias de Ensifera y Caelifera; las claves e ilustraciones de Nickle (1992a, 1992b) para la identificacion de subfamilias y generos de Ensifera unicamente; y el catalogo ilustrado de Naskrecky y Otte (1999) para corroborar los generos obtenidos de la familia Tettigoniidae.
Huang J, Zhang A, Mao S, Huang Y (2013) DNA barcoding and species boundary delimitation of selected species of Chinese Acridoidea (Orthoptera: Caelifera).
Taxon LF EF M MS S C Caelifera Acridoidea Acridomorpha Acrididae Gomphocerinae Chrysochraon dispar (Germar, 1834) pra m-hyg 3 37 13 43 Euchorthippus declivus (Brisout de Barneville, 1848) gra ther 1 2 Euthystira brachyptera (Ocskay 1826) pra mes 28 28 29 14 Chorthippus biguttulus (Linnaeus, 1758) pra m-ther 4 8 Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg, 1815) pra m-ther 6 10 8 1 Chorthippus dorsatus (Zetterstedt, 1821) pra mes 24 6 16 2 Chorthippus oschei Helversen 1986 pra mes 3 3 1 1 Chorthippus sp.
Massa B (2012) The role of the Krauss's organ in sound production in Pamphagidae (Caelifera: Orthoptera).
The Tetrigidae, or pygmy grasshoppers, are a monophyletic clade and forms a unique lineage among the Caelifera (grasshoppers) (Song et al.
Batko, 1964 (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophtorales) among short-horned Orthoptera (Caelifera) in Kazakhstan.
Crickets (Ensifera: Gryllidae) and short-horned grasshoppers or locusts (Caelifera: Acrididae) represent two different suborders in the same insect order (Orthoptera).