Herein we report the isolation of two new alkaloidal steroid saponins; solanoid A and B (1 and 2), two known alkaloidal steroid glycosides; solamargine (3)  and khasianine (4) , a known steroidal saponin, dioscin (5) , a benzoylated steroid, carpesterol (6) , methyl caffeate
(7), ferulic acid (8) and oleic acid .
Hsu, "Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of caffeate
derivatives on A549 human lung carcinoma cells," Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol.
Again, refluxing thionyl chloride with catalytic DMF was used in the synthesis of the caffeate
while cold oxalyl chloride in C[H.sub.2][Cl.sub.2] was preferred in the synthesis of the caffeamide.
as an a-glucosidase inhibitor from Solanum torvum fruits and the activity of related compounds.
, a phenolic compound isolated from B.
Immunological studies have shown that phenyl ethyl caffeate
strongly and significantly inhibits the expression of interferon gamma-induced protein- (IP-) 10 in response to TNF, as well as the production of lymphoid factors and activation of nuclear factor- (NF-) [kappa]B [21-23].
Fraction 3 from EtOAc and acetone sub-fraction was repeatedly separated by silica gel column chromatography, purified by reverse phase HPLC (Figure 3(a)), six known compounds, which is (1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) , (2) pinobanksin , (3) benzyl caffeate
(BZC) , (4) chrysin , (5) caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) [23, 26] and (6) cinnamyl caffeate
(CNC) [23, 27].
As a result, compound 26 was authenticated as methyl caffeate
which was not identified from EBCLJ in vitro (Chen et al., 2010).
In a similar study employing T84 cell monolayers, the negative effects of sodium caprate on tight junction associated genes were counterbalanced by several apple polyphenols and their presumed intestinal digestion products, including caffeate
, quinic acid, and methyl-p-coumarate .
speciosa principally contain free amino acids, fatty acids, ergometrine, ergoline alkaloids, caffeic acid, and ethyl caffeate
. The fruits mostly have n-triacontanol, [beta]-sitosterol, p-hydroxycinnamoyl octadecanoate, and caffeic acid.
In one such study cinnamate, p-coumarate, ferulate, caffeate
, and p-chloro cinnamate esters of triterpenes betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were prepared and evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and it was observed that p-coumarate and ferulate esters resulted in 8-fold and 4-fold increase of activity of parent triterpenes respectively .
Solanum torvum Swartz An a-glucosidase inhibitor has been isolated from the fruit, namely methyl caffeate
(Takahashi et al., 2010); ethanolic extract of the plant reduced systolic blood pressure, vascular reactivity changes to catecholamines, and reversed the metabolic alterations induced by fructose, which can be of value to diabetic patients (Mohan et al., 2009).