Gaius Marius

(redirected from Caius Marius)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Marius, Gaius


Born circa 157 B.C. in Cereatae, near Arpinum; died 86 B.C. in Rome. Roman military leader and political figure.

Marius came from a plebeian family. In 119 B.C. he became a popular tribune. In 115, after his marriage to the patrician Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar, he became a praetor. In 109, during the war with Jugurtha, he became a legate. With the support of the equites and plebes he was elected consul in 107. In 105 he brought the war with Jugurtha to a victorious conclusion. The threat of an invasion of Italy by the Cimbri and Teutons forced the Romans, in violation of the law, to elect the popular military leader consul for several years in a row (104-101 B.C.). In 102, Marius routed the Teuton tribes, and in 101 he defeated the Cimbri. During the wars Marius reformed the army; historical sources report the recruitment of poor people into the army contrary to tradition and tell of other changes. Marius promoted professionalism in the army.

Marius was again elected consul in 100 B.C., and in alliance with the popular tribune Apuleus Saturninus he pressed the popular assembly to pass a law allocating land to veterans. However, he then turned against Saturninus and as consul helped suppress the latter’s movement. He took part in the Social War of 90 (or 91) to 88. With the assistance of the popular tribune Sulpicius Rufus in 88 he received command in the first Mithridatic War (89-84 B.C.), but when Sulla took Rome (88), Marius was forced to flee to Africa. After Sulla left for Greece, Marius landed in Etruria, collected an army (admitting even runaway slaves), and in alliance with Cinna, who had been exiled by the followers of Sulla, took Rome (87). After dealing harshly with his political enemies, Marius took up once again (for the seventh time) his office as consul, but after a few days he died.


Carney, T. F., “A Biography of G. Marius.” Proceedings of the African Classical Association, 1962, supplement, no. 1.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cunningham also notes that both Thomas Otway's Caius Marius (a Restoration version of the Romeo and Juliet story) and Theophilus Cibber's version of the play (first performed in 1744) include this liebestod scene and so audiences would have expected to see it.
In Thomas Otway's Caius Marius Mrs Barry, besides playing the female lead, Lavinia, spoke the Epilogue.
After five years, however, Rome appointed a new consul, Caius Marius, whose name, along with that of his right-hand man and eventual rival Lucius Sulla, was to become a hiss and a byword for future generations of Romans.
Political topicality is evident in all these rewritings of Shakespeare's plays, including Shadwell's The History of Timon of Athens, the Man-Hater, Ravenscroft's Titus Andronicus, Otway's The History and Fall of Caius Marius, and Tate's notorious adaptation of King Lear.
Critical reaction to Otway's source material for The History and Fall of Caius Marius is usually expressed as repugnance at his perverse yoking of the mutually repellent stories of Romeo and Juliet from Shakespeare and of the fall of Marius as recounted originally by Plutarch.