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Calabria(kälä`brēä), region (1991 pop. 2,070,203), 5,822 sq mi (15,079 sq km), S Italy, a peninsula projecting between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Ionian Sea, separated from Sicily by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms the toe of the Italian "boot." CatanzaroCatanzaro
, city (1991 pop. 96,614), capital of Catanzaro prov. and of Calabria, S Italy, on a hill above the Ionian Sea. It is a commercial center, with flour mills and distilleries. Employment opportunities there are limited, and the per capita income is low.
..... Click the link for more information. is the capital of Calabria, which is divided into Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio di Calabria provs. (named after their capitals). The region is generally mountainous, with narrow coastal strips. Long one of the most depressed areas in Italy, the government has tried to stimulate the economy through land reform, the introduction of new crops, and the promotion of tourism. Farming is the main occupation; olives, plums, grapes, citrus fruit, and wheat are grown, and sheep and goats are raised. Fishing is well developed along the Strait of Messina. The region's few manufactures include processed food, wine, forest products, chemicals, and metal goods. There are several large hydroelectric plants. The ancient BruttiumBruttium
, ancient region, S Italy, roughly occupying the present Calabria, the "toe" of the Italian peninsula. Bruttium faced Sicily across the Strait of Messina. Inhabited in the interior by the Brutii (whose chief town was Cosenza) and by the Lucani, it was settled (8th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. , the region was named Calabria in the 8th cent.; before then Calabria referred to the present S ApuliaApulia
, Ital. Puglia, region (1991 pop. 4,031,885), 7,469 sq mi (19,345 sq km), S Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea in the east and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southern portion, a peninsula, forms the heel of the Italian "boot.
..... Click the link for more information. . Taken in the 11th cent. by Robert GuiscardRobert Guiscard
, c.1015–1085, Norman conqueror of S Italy, a son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). Robert joined (c.1046) his brothers in S Italy and fought with them to expel the Byzantines.
..... Click the link for more information. , Calabria was first part of the Norman kingdom of Sicily and after 1282 became part of the kingdom of NaplesNaples, kingdom of,
former state, occupying the Italian peninsula south of the former Papal States. It comprised roughly the present regions of Campania, Abruzzi, Molise, Basilicata, Apulia, and Calabria. Naples was the capital.
In the 11th and 12th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. . The region was conquered by Garibaldi in 1860. Feudal landholding patterns prevailed in Calabria until the 20th cent. These, along with malaria, destructive earthquakes (particularly in 1905 and 1908), droughts, and poor transportation facilities, have hindered the economic development of the region and resulted in large-scale emigration (late 19th cent.–20th cent.) to foreign countries and to the industrial cities of N Italy. There is a relatively new university at Reggio di Calabria.
a region in southern Italy, primarily on the Calabrian Peninsula. Area, 15, 100 sq km. Population, 2 million (1970). It comprises the provinces of Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio di Calabria. Catanzaro is the main city.
The main economic activity in Calabria is agriculture, in which approximately half of the economically active population is engaged. Large landed estates are typical; land-starvation and poverty are prevalent among the peasants, causing large-scale emigration. Viticulture, truck farming, and floriculture (growing jasmine for essences) are important. Calabria produces 23 percent of the country’s olives, 15 percent of its citrus fruits, and 12 percent of its figs. There are extensive pasture areas for the raising of livestock. In 1969 there were 369, 000 sheep, 138, 000 goats, 185, 000 cattle, 264, 000 hogs, and 51,000 horses, donkeys, and mules.
About a third of the economically active population is engaged in industry. Electric power is produced mainly at the Plateau la Sila hydroelectric power station; the output was 0.9 billion kilowatt-hours in 1969. Calabria has zinc-smelting and chemical plants (in Crotone), a plant producing railroad cars (in Reggio di Calabria), a cement plant, and a rolling mill. There are food, garment, and wood-products industries.
REFERENCEGambi, Lucio. “Calabria.” Turin, 1965. (Le regioni d’Italia, vol. 16.)
T. A. GALKINA
a peninsula in southern Italy; the southern part of the Apennine Peninsula between the Ionian Sea, the Strait ofMessina, and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Length, approximately 250km. Width, from 40 to 100 km. Most of it is occupied by theCalabrian Apennines, which are composed mainly of limestoneand flysch in the east and of granites and gneisses in the west.Elevation, up to 1, 956 m (in the Aspromonte Massif). On the mountain slopes there is maquis, and in places beech and pineforests. Along the coasts there are narrow, very hilly tilledplains. Calabria is subject to earthquakes. The major cities areReggio di Calabria, Catanzaro, and Cosenza.