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(kälä`brēä), region (1991 pop. 2,070,203), 5,822 sq mi (15,079 sq km), S Italy, a peninsula projecting between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Ionian Sea, separated from Sicily by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms the toe of the Italian "boot." CatanzaroCatanzaro
, city (1991 pop. 96,614), capital of Catanzaro prov. and of Calabria, S Italy, on a hill above the Ionian Sea. It is a commercial center, with flour mills and distilleries. Employment opportunities there are limited, and the per capita income is low.
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 is the capital of Calabria, which is divided into Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio di Calabria provs. (named after their capitals). The region is generally mountainous, with narrow coastal strips. Long one of the most depressed areas in Italy, the government has tried to stimulate the economy through land reform, the introduction of new crops, and the promotion of tourism. Farming is the main occupation; olives, plums, grapes, citrus fruit, and wheat are grown, and sheep and goats are raised. Fishing is well developed along the Strait of Messina. The region's few manufactures include processed food, wine, forest products, chemicals, and metal goods. There are several large hydroelectric plants. The ancient BruttiumBruttium
, ancient region, S Italy, roughly occupying the present Calabria, the "toe" of the Italian peninsula. Bruttium faced Sicily across the Strait of Messina. Inhabited in the interior by the Brutii (whose chief town was Cosenza) and by the Lucani, it was settled (8th cent.
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, the region was named Calabria in the 8th cent.; before then Calabria referred to the present S ApuliaApulia
, Ital. Puglia, region (1991 pop. 4,031,885), 7,469 sq mi (19,345 sq km), S Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea in the east and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southern portion, a peninsula, forms the heel of the Italian "boot.
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. Taken in the 11th cent. by Robert GuiscardRobert Guiscard
, c.1015–1085, Norman conqueror of S Italy, a son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). Robert joined (c.1046) his brothers in S Italy and fought with them to expel the Byzantines.
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, Calabria was first part of the Norman kingdom of Sicily and after 1282 became part of the kingdom of NaplesNaples, kingdom of,
former state, occupying the Italian peninsula south of the former Papal States. It comprised roughly the present regions of Campania, Abruzzi, Molise, Basilicata, Apulia, and Calabria. Naples was the capital.

In the 11th and 12th cent.
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. The region was conquered by Garibaldi in 1860. Feudal landholding patterns prevailed in Calabria until the 20th cent. These, along with malaria, destructive earthquakes (particularly in 1905 and 1908), droughts, and poor transportation facilities, have hindered the economic development of the region and resulted in large-scale emigration (late 19th cent.–20th cent.) to foreign countries and to the industrial cities of N Italy. There is a relatively new university at Reggio di Calabria.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a region in southern Italy, primarily on the Calabrian Peninsula. Area, 15, 100 sq km. Population, 2 million (1970). It comprises the provinces of Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio di Calabria. Catanzaro is the main city.

The main economic activity in Calabria is agriculture, in which approximately half of the economically active population is engaged. Large landed estates are typical; land-starvation and poverty are prevalent among the peasants, causing large-scale emigration. Viticulture, truck farming, and floriculture (growing jasmine for essences) are important. Calabria produces 23 percent of the country’s olives, 15 percent of its citrus fruits, and 12 percent of its figs. There are extensive pasture areas for the raising of livestock. In 1969 there were 369, 000 sheep, 138, 000 goats, 185, 000 cattle, 264, 000 hogs, and 51,000 horses, donkeys, and mules.

About a third of the economically active population is engaged in industry. Electric power is produced mainly at the Plateau la Sila hydroelectric power station; the output was 0.9 billion kilowatt-hours in 1969. Calabria has zinc-smelting and chemical plants (in Crotone), a plant producing railroad cars (in Reggio di Calabria), a cement plant, and a rolling mill. There are food, garment, and wood-products industries.


Gambi, Lucio. “Calabria.” Turin, 1965. (Le regioni d’Italia, vol. 16.)




a peninsula in southern Italy; the southern part of the Apennine Peninsula between the Ionian Sea, the Strait ofMessina, and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Length, approximately 250km. Width, from 40 to 100 km. Most of it is occupied by theCalabrian Apennines, which are composed mainly of limestoneand flysch in the east and of granites and gneisses in the west.Elevation, up to 1, 956 m (in the Aspromonte Massif). On the mountain slopes there is maquis, and in places beech and pineforests. Along the coasts there are narrow, very hilly tilledplains. Calabria is subject to earthquakes. The major cities areReggio di Calabria, Catanzaro, and Cosenza.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a region of SW Italy: mostly mountainous and subject to earthquakes. Chief town: Reggio di Calabria. Pop.: 2 007 392 (2003 est.). Area: 15 080 sq. km (5822 sq. miles)
2. an ancient region of extreme SE Italy (3rd century bc to about 668 ad); now part of Apulia
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Calabria continued to record an operating surplus in 2017, at 5% of revenue when netted of difficult-to-collect car and waste disposal taxes.
The introduction of Calabria follows the announcement of 10 and 11 night holidays and extra flights to popular routes Montenegro, Zante, Turkey, Egypt and Mexico.
Ferraro taught at the Italian Institute for Advanced Culinary and Pastry Arts as the creative cuisine professor for one year in 2014, and in 2015 he published his first book Calabria in Tutti i Sensi - Un Viaggio con Luigi Ferraro (Calabria in every way - A journey with Luigi Ferraro) in co-operation with photographer Riccardo Marcialis and published by Rubbettino Editore.
A winter frost destroyed 90% of this year's crop, creating the worst shortage he has seen in Calabria etrogs, which are named for the southern region where they are grown.
Beagle's signature style immediately in his new novel, In Calabria. Touching gently on themes of faith, mythology, and poetry, In Calabria is a modern fairy tale that shows what happens when true magic meets modern technology.
"I am thrilled to partner with Caffe Calabria on Wine Wednesdays and bringing the experience to a whole new level for patrons," said Brendan Quigley, Chief Executive Officer.
Eight other bankers from Calabria's team at CMC Capital, both in London and Milan, will also join Barclays to work in the EMEA banking team.
The event was aimed in particular at the promotion of investment opportunities in the Calabria region in southern Italy.
Critique: Calabria was known in antiquity as Bruttium or formerly as Italia, is a region in southern Italy, forming the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula.
London, June 22 ( ANI ): Pope Francis has strongly condemned the mafia's "adoration of evil" at a mass in Calabria, saying that the gangsters were effectively "excommunicated".
The plan is subdivided into 14 individual projects across Italy but with special emphasis on the convergence regions of Campania, Puglia, Sicily and Calabria. The flagship project in terms of both size and strategic importance is the Sorgente-Rizziconi interconnection, the section of the grid between Sicily and Calabria.