Calanoida


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Calanoida

[‚kal·ə′nȯid·ə]
(invertebrate zoology)
A suborder of the crustacean order Copepoda, including the larger and more abundant of the pelagic species.

Calanoida

 

a suborder of planktonic invertebrate animals of the order Copepoda. Some zoologists consider Calanoida an independent order.

Calanoida are from 0.5 to 14 mm in size. The head is fused with the first thoracic segment, forming the cephalothorax, on which there are a nauplius eye and five pairs of appendages (antennae I and II, mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae). The thorax bears maxillipeds and five or four pairs of swimming legs. Respiration is effected by the entire body surface. The female deposits eggs in the water or carries them in an egg sac until giving birth. Calanoida feed on phytoplankton (only a few are predators) and are themselves the principal food of fish fry, plankton-feeding fish (such as herring, anchovies, sardines, and Pacific saury) and whalebone whales. More than 2, 000 species are known, belonging to 200 genera united in 30 families. They are widely distributed in marine and fresh bodies of water and are very numerous. (In the surface waters of the ocean there are up to tens of thousands of individuals per cubic meter.) The majority of marine Calanoida are characterized by luminescence. A typical representative of Calanoida is Calanus finmar-chicus.

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 2. Moscow, 1968. Pages 406-10.
Brodskii, K. A. Veslonogie rachki Calanoida DaVnevostochnykh morei SSSR i Poliarnogo basseina. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.

K. A. BRODSKII

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References in periodicals archive ?
Species from the copepod orders Calanoida and Cyclopoida seem to possess MWS opsins from only two clades, although the clade missing any expressed transcript varies between the two orders: calanoids express transcripts from clades A and C and lack any clade B opsin expression, while cyclopoids express clade A and B opsins but are missing expression from clade C transcripts.
1 Number Prey categories and species (% occurrence) Calanoida Calanus pacificus 1 (1.
Checklist dos Copepoda Calanoida de agua doce do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, Brasil.
Corgosinho and Pinto-Coelho (2006) reported that Cladocera and Cyclopoida were the most abundant zooplanktonic groups in eutrophic stations of their study, while Calanoida were prevalent in more oligotrophic sites, in freshwater reservoirs.
Other literature suggests that reduction in fish communities results in moderate numbers of damselfly and caddisfly larvae the year following treatment (Claffey and Ruck 1967) and corresponding increases in calanoida copepod and cladocerans (Ling 2002).
Taxonomic arrangement and nomenclature follows Dussart and Defaye (2002, 2006) for Calanoida