Effectiveness of Calcium Bromide
in Reducing Mercury Emission
Based on the derivative-type, use of brine fluids derived from zinc bromide, sodium bromide and calcium bromide
in the homogenous extraction of oil and gas is increasing and will continue to drive market growth to a significant extent.
The corrosive fluids implicated in the leak at Total's Elgin field, such as calcium bromide, are commonly used in such deep-sea wells, and experts fear a recurrence as operators, under pressure to offset declining output from conventional reservoirs, turn to deeper, hotter and higher pressure fields.
Total has says the leak was caused by a corrosive reaction between calcium bromide used to complete the well and grease in the pipework, which under high pressure cracked the piping.
Calcium bromide is not generally regarded as corrosive and is still widely used in the North Sea, but Reuters uncovered a number of historical cases in which chemically related fluids known as halides, such as zinc bromide and calcium chloride, have corroded pipework.
The second phase of the expansion will double the current capacity of key bromine derivatives, hydrobromic acid, calcium bromide
, and sodium bromide, and is scheduled for commissioning in May 2013, said a top official.
Effective immediately, or as contracts allow, the new prices will be implemented on WELLBROM sodium bromide fluid, WELLBROM calcium bromide
fluid and WELLBROM zinc bromide/calcium bromide fluid.
Products: Calcium bromide
14.2, zinc bromide/calcium bromide 19.2, and sodium bromide 12.5
Bromine usage will trail that of derivatives due to a changing product mix that features, on the whole, good growth in derivatives that contain less bromine by weight, such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBA) and brominated hydantoins; and slow growth or outright declines in the production of derivatives that contain higher loadings of bromine (e.g., calcium bromide
, methyl bromide).
When completed (anticipated to be in 2002), the joint venture will operate a 50,000-ton bromine plant, a 47,500-ton potassium hydroxide plant, a 30,000-ton calcium bromide
plant, and a 50,000-ton tetrabromobisphenol-A (Saytex CP-2000) flame retardant plant.