Calculi


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Calculi

 

(also concretions or stones), solid masses in the hollow organs and glandular ducts of man.

Calculi may be of different sizes, shapes, and consistencies. The chemical composition varies with the place where they are formed and with the composition of the fluid in which lithogenesis (formation of stones) takes place. Calculi in the gall bladder and bile ducts consist of cholesterol, bile pigments, calcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate; urinary calculi are formed in the urinary tract and are divided according to the acid radicals into urates (the commonest type), oxalates, phosphates, and carbonates. Urinary calculi may contain xanthine, cystine, indigo, sulfur, soap, and cholesterol. The causes of calculi formation may be general (for example, disturbance of metabolism or pregnancy) or local (change in the chemical composition of a secretion, specifically, its protective colloids and pH, stagnation of a secretion, inflammation). Lithogenesis is most often caused by a combination of these factors. The formation of biliary and urinary calculi is the basis of cholelithiasis and urolithiasis, respectively.

References in periodicals archive ?
Salivary stasis and ductal inflammation promote aggregation of mineralized debris to form nidus, which ultimately leads to the formation of calculi.
Conclusions: Although stone size, proximal location, and severe pain, as indicated by higher opioid doses, were associated with the need for intervention, the degree of obstruction did not influence the management of patients with CT-defined urinary calculi.
During the routine medical checkup of these workers a number of renal lithiasis cases were detected which prompted the question whether lead accumulates in renal calculi like other body pools such as physiological fluids, soft tissues and bones [2].
Few studies have used ultrasonography in conjunction with endoscopy for transfacial removal of parotid calculi and mechanical fragmentation of stones.
An incision was made on dorsal wall of bladder and cystic calculi were removed.
In a study from Karachi by Rizvi et al,20 75 renal calculi were analyzed.
1 Ureteral calculus is one of the main types of urinary calculi with renal colic and hematuria as the main characteristics clinically and is seriously endangering the life and work of patients.
There is an exclusive chapter on deduction rules in the calculi of association rules in this book that discuss the properties with adequate number of theorems.
The semantics of the *tcc calculi described above and its application in music is well-explained in Olarte et al.
Urolithiasis often refers pain to the back, flank and groin regions depending on the location of the calculi.
Giant salivary calculi have however been reported to remain asymptomatic for many months prior to presentation (4).