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caliphate(kăl`ĭfāt', –fĭt), the rulership of Islam; caliph (kăl`ĭf'), the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
..... Click the link for more information. is theocratic: when MuhammadMuhammad
[Arab.,=praised], 570?–632, the name of the Prophet of Islam, one of the great figures of history, b. Mecca. Early Life
Muhammad was the son of Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and his wife Amina, both of the Hashim clan of the dominant Kuraish (Quraysh)
..... Click the link for more information. died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place. The caliph had temporal and spiritual authority but was not permitted prophetic power; this was reserved for Muhammad. The caliph could not, therefore, exercise authority in matters of religious doctrine. The first caliph was Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
..... Click the link for more information. . He was succeeded by UmarUmar
, c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphate). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power.
..... Click the link for more information. , UthmanUthman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
..... Click the link for more information. , and AliAli
(Ali ibn Abu Talib), 598?–661, 4th caliph (656–61). The debate over his right to the caliphate caused a major split in Islam into Sunni and Shiite branches, and he is regarded by the Shiites as the first Imam, or leader: Shiite derives from the phrase
..... Click the link for more information. . SunniSunni
[Arab. Sunna,=tradition], from ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamaa [Arab.,=the people of the custom of the Prophet and community], the largest division of Islam. Sunni Islam is the heir to the early central Islamic state, in its ackowledgement of the legitimacy of the order of
..... Click the link for more information. Muslims recognize these first four, or Rashidun (the rightly guided), caliphs. ShiitesShiites
[Arab., shiat Ali,=the party of Ali], the second largest branch of Islam, Shiites currently account for 10%–15% of all Muslims. Shiite Islam originated as a political movement supporting Ali (cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam) as the
..... Click the link for more information. , however, recognize Ali as the first caliph. After Ali's death, MuawiyaMuawiya
, d. 680, 1st Umayyad caliph (661–80), one of the greatest Muslim statesmen; son of Abu Sufyan, a Koreish tribesman of Mecca. He submitted to Islam the year of the surrender of Mecca and became Muhammad's secretary.
..... Click the link for more information. became caliph and founded the UmayyadUmayyad
, the first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite.
..... Click the link for more information. dynasty (661–750), chiefly by force of arms. Its capital was Damascus. In 750 the AbbasidAbbasid
, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in Spain nor (after 787) W of Egypt.
..... Click the link for more information. family, descended from the Prophet's uncle, led a coalition that defeated (749–50) the Umayyad family. The Abbasid dynasty (749–1258) is sometimes called the caliphate of Baghdad. One Umayyad, Abd ar-Rahman IAbd ar-Rahman I,
d. 788, first Umayyad emir of Córdoba (756–88). The only survivor of the Abbasid massacre (750) of his family in Damascus, he fled from Syria and eventually went to Spain.
..... Click the link for more information. , escaped the general massacre of his family and fled to Spain; there the emirate of Córdoba was set up in 780. This later became the caliphate of Córdoba, or the Western caliphate, and persisted until 1031. A third competing contemporaneous caliphate was established by the FatimidsFatimid
, dynasty claiming to hold the caliphate on the basis of descent from Fatima, a daughter of Muhammad the Prophet. In doctrine the Fatimids were related to other Shiite sects.
..... Click the link for more information. in Africa, Syria, and Egypt (909–1171). After the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols under Hulagu Khan in 1258, the Abbasids fled to Egypt. The Ottomans captured Egypt in 1517 and Selim ISelim I
(Selim the Grim) , 1467–1520, Ottoman sultan (1512–20). He ascended the throne of the Ottoman Empire by forcing the abdication of his father, Beyazid II, and by killing his brothers.
..... Click the link for more information. assumed the title of caliph by questionable right. The Ottoman sultans, however, kept the title until the last sultan, Muhammad VI, was deposed. He was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924 the caliphate was abolished by Kemal AtatürkAtatürk, Kemal
, 1881–1938, Turkish leader, founder of modern Turkey. He took the name in 1934 in place of his earlier name, Mustafa Kemal, when he ordered all Turks to adopt a surname; it is made up of the Turkish words Ata and Türk [father of the Turks].
..... Click the link for more information. . A year later Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
..... Click the link for more information. , king of Arabia, proclaimed himself caliph, but he was forced to abdicate by Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
..... Click the link for more information. . Subsequently, several pan-Islamic congresses attempted to establish a rightful caliph. A number of Islamist political parties and Islamist guerrilla groups have called for the restoration of the caliphate by uniting, either through peaceful political action or through force, Islamic nations in a transnational state.
See W. Muir, The Caliphate (1898, repr. 1964); T. W. Arnold, The Caliphate (1924, repr. 1966); A. S. Tritton, The Caliphs and Their Non-Muslim Subjects (1930, repr. 1970); M. Ali, Early Caliphate (tr. 1947); S. K. Bakhsh, The Caliphate (1954); P. K. Hitti, History of the Arabs (10th ed. 1970); H. Kennedy, The Early Abbasid Caliphate (1981).
Caliphate(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
When Muhammad died he left no clearly designated successor to lead the new Muslim movement. This led to an immediate division in Islam.
Traditionalists believed Abu-Bakr, one of the Prophet's friends (some say he was a father-in-law) and among the first of his converts, was meant to step into Muhammad's place. People of this tradition became known as Sunnis. Others chose to follow Ali, the prophet's cousin and son-in-law. These people came to be known as Shi'ites (from Shia Ali—"the party of Ali").
The leaders of each party were called caliphs, and their successors formed the caliphate.
the Muslim theocratic system; the term is also used in the literature to designate the feudal Arabic-Muslim state headed by the caliphs. The original nucleus of the caliphate was the Muslim community (umma) formed by Muhammad in western Arabia in the early seventh century. As a result of Arab conquests, the caliphate was transformed into an enormous state that included the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, most of Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and Sind.
Under the Umayyads (661–750) and Abbasids (750–1258), while feudal relationships in the caliphate predominated, the slaveholding and patriarchal systems were still strong. The caliphate’s brilliant and diversified culture, formed between the seventh and tenth centuries, was a very important influence in world culture.
In the ninth century, various factors led to the breakup of the unified caliphate and the emergence of feudal states that had de facto independence. Such factors included the varying level of economic development among the countries that were part of the caliphate, the weakness of economic ties among the different regions, the antifeudal uprisings for popular liberation, the concentration of land ownership in the hands of the military elite and local aristocracy of feudal landowners, and the internal struggle in the feudal class itself.
Beginning in the first half of the tenth century, the Abbasid caliphate coexisted with two others—the Fatimid caliphate (909–1171) and the Umayyad caliphate, or caliphate of Córdoba, in Spain (929–1031)—in which the caliph had both spiritual and secular authority. The Abbasid caliph was divested of secular power after the conquest of Baghdad by the Buyids in 945.
In 1055 the Seljuks replaced the Buyids in Baghdad. After the breakup of the Seljuk state in 1118, the Abbasid caliphate was revived as a state in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. In 1258, after the Mongol conquest of Baghdad, the caliphate ceased to exist as a state. Nevertheless, Abbasid caliphs continued to live in Cairo until the Turkish conquest of Egypt in 1517; their religious authority, as exercised through investiture, served to sanctify the secular rule of the sultans in Egypt and sometimes in other Muslim countries as well. Later, the Turkish sultans called themselves caliphs, claiming that after the conquest of Egypt the title had been transferred to them by the last representative of the Abbasid dynasty in Cairo. The Turkish caliphate was abolished in republican Turkey in March 1924.
REFERENCESBartol’d, V. V. Soch., vol. 6. Moscow, 1966. Pages 15–139 and 303–19.
Beliaev, E. A. Araby, islam i arabskii khalifat v rannce srednevekov’e, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Nadiradze, L. I. “Voprosy obshchestvenno-ekonomicheskogo stroia gosudarstva arabov i khalifata VII–VIII vv. v sovetskoi istoriografii.” In the collection Istoriografiia stran Vostoka. Moscow, 1969.
Nadiradze, L. I. “K voprosu o feodalizme v zavoevannykh arabami stranakh.” In the collection Sovremennaia istoriografiia stran zarubezhnogo Vostoka. Moscow, 1975.
Mez, A. Musul’manskii Renessans. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from German.)
Wellhansen, J. Das arabische Reich und sein Sturz. Berlin, 1902.
Hitti, P. History of the Arabs, 8th ed. London-New York, 1964.
Spuler, B. Geschichte der islamischen Länder, part 1. Leiden, 1952.
See also references under ISLAM.
L. I. NADIRADZE