California Indians

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

California Indians

 

the aboriginal population of the state of California in the USA: a multiplicity of tribes (including the Karok, Yurok, Hupa, Mono, Porno, Wintun, Maidu, Yokuts, and Miwok tribes) of various language families (such as the Athapascan, Algonquian, Hokan, Penutian, and Shoshonean groups). The California Indians were distinguished by particular features of their economies, the basis of which was gathering, combined with fishing and hunting. The colonization of California, first by the Spaniards and then by the Americans (especially in the second half of the 19th century), was accompanied by extermination of Indians and the disappearance of many tribes. The survivors were settled on reservations. According to official 1970 figures, the Indian population in California was 40, 000. The California Indians live in poverty; they work as hired hands and engage in small-scale farming.

REFERENCE

Narody Ameriki, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Came a beautiful fall day, warm and languid, palpitant with the hush of the changing season, a California Indian summer day, with hazy sun and wandering wisps of breeze that did not stir the slumber of the air.
The last Mariposa lily vanished from the burnt grasses as the California Indian summer dreamed itself out in purple mists on the windless air.
During this period, collectors, museum curators, and dealers competed to acquire the most highly prized baskets, those made by California Indians. Victorian homes were decorated with Native baskets and often featured special "Indian rooms" to showcase baskets and curios often acquired on trips to the West.
California Indians essentially became prisoners, they say, held captive by the mission system, forbidden to leave and forced to do labor.
Journalist Castillo challenges the popular notion that peaceful exchanges occurred between the Franciscan monks and California Indians, showing instead how the Spanish occupation of California lured Indians into the missions where they faced forced labor and physical punishment.
Synopsis: The Spanish missions of California have long been misrepresented as places of benign and peaceful coexistence between Franciscan friars and California Indians. In fact, the mission friars enslaved the California Indians and treated them with deliberate cruelty.
"There are quite a few California Indians who think he shouldn't be a saint," Vera Rocha, chairwoman of the organized Southern California Indians, Gabrielano Band, told the Los Angeles Times back then.
These two features of California Indian life have meant reduced economic activity and options for California Indians historically.
In the first chapter, "Settling into the City: American Indian Migration and Urbanization, 1900-1945," Rosenthal tells the story of the migration of American Indians in the Southwest and California Indians to urban areas and places where labor was needed before World War II.
Through "Indigenizing California History," a book in progress, Bauer wants "to insert California Indians into the intellectual history of the United States in the early 20th century." His past works include We Were All Like Migrant Workers Here: Work, Community and Memory on California's Round Valley Reservation, 1850-1941; essays on California Indian history in the Western Historical Quarterly; Native Pathways: American Indian Culture and Economic Development in the Twentieth Century; and A Companion to California History.
Here, she offers something for everyone: a personal and family memoir for general readers, a tribal history of California Indians for students and scholars, and poems for fans of her poetry.

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