California Indians

California Indians

 

the aboriginal population of the state of California in the USA: a multiplicity of tribes (including the Karok, Yurok, Hupa, Mono, Porno, Wintun, Maidu, Yokuts, and Miwok tribes) of various language families (such as the Athapascan, Algonquian, Hokan, Penutian, and Shoshonean groups). The California Indians were distinguished by particular features of their economies, the basis of which was gathering, combined with fishing and hunting. The colonization of California, first by the Spaniards and then by the Americans (especially in the second half of the 19th century), was accompanied by extermination of Indians and the disappearance of many tribes. The survivors were settled on reservations. According to official 1970 figures, the Indian population in California was 40, 000. The California Indians live in poverty; they work as hired hands and engage in small-scale farming.

REFERENCE

Narody Ameriki, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.
References in classic literature ?
Came a beautiful fall day, warm and languid, palpitant with the hush of the changing season, a California Indian summer day, with hazy sun and wandering wisps of breeze that did not stir the slumber of the air.
The last Mariposa lily vanished from the burnt grasses as the California Indian summer dreamed itself out in purple mists on the windless air.
It is answered: "Father Junipero Serra left behind a life of academic prestige and renown to take on a life of hardship, sacrifice and toil in order to become an advocate and spiritual minister to the Native California Indians.
Journalist Castillo challenges the popular notion that peaceful exchanges occurred between the Franciscan monks and California Indians, showing instead how the Spanish occupation of California lured Indians into the missions where they faced forced labor and physical punishment.
In fact, the mission friars enslaved the California Indians and treated them with deliberate cruelty.
There are quite a few California Indians who think he shouldn't be a saint," Vera Rocha, chairwoman of the organized Southern California Indians, Gabrielano Band, told the Los Angeles Times back then.
These two features of California Indian life have meant reduced economic activity and options for California Indians historically.
In the first chapter, "Settling into the City: American Indian Migration and Urbanization, 1900-1945," Rosenthal tells the story of the migration of American Indians in the Southwest and California Indians to urban areas and places where labor was needed before World War II.
Through "Indigenizing California History," a book in progress, Bauer wants "to insert California Indians into the intellectual history of the United States in the early 20th century.
Here, she offers something for everyone: a personal and family memoir for general readers, a tribal history of California Indians for students and scholars, and poems for fans of her poetry.
As this table indicates, Baja California Indians played a stronger role during the early years at Mission San Gabriel, as did gente de razon godparents, but by 1800, local Indians sponsored themselves for baptism in significant numbers, reflecting the emergence of new indigenous Catholic communities.
As historians such as James Rawls, Albert Hurtado, and Tomas Almaguer have documented, the dehumanization of California Indians was an integral component of Euro-American justification for their displacement, enslavement, and extermination in the process of exploiting the region's economic potential.

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