California Indians

California Indians

 

the aboriginal population of the state of California in the USA: a multiplicity of tribes (including the Karok, Yurok, Hupa, Mono, Porno, Wintun, Maidu, Yokuts, and Miwok tribes) of various language families (such as the Athapascan, Algonquian, Hokan, Penutian, and Shoshonean groups). The California Indians were distinguished by particular features of their economies, the basis of which was gathering, combined with fishing and hunting. The colonization of California, first by the Spaniards and then by the Americans (especially in the second half of the 19th century), was accompanied by extermination of Indians and the disappearance of many tribes. The survivors were settled on reservations. According to official 1970 figures, the Indian population in California was 40, 000. The California Indians live in poverty; they work as hired hands and engage in small-scale farming.

REFERENCE

Narody Ameriki, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.
References in classic literature ?
Came a beautiful fall day, warm and languid, palpitant with the hush of the changing season, a California Indian summer day, with hazy sun and wandering wisps of breeze that did not stir the slumber of the air.
It is answered: "Father Junipero Serra left behind a life of academic prestige and renown to take on a life of hardship, sacrifice and toil in order to become an advocate and spiritual minister to the Native California Indians.
Finally, Phillips brings the reader's attention to the role of southern California Indians in the development of towns and pueblos, namely Los Angeles.
Through "Indigenizing California History," a book in progress, Bauer wants "to insert California Indians into the intellectual history of the United States in the early 20th century.
Here, she offers something for everyone: a personal and family memoir for general readers, a tribal history of California Indians for students and scholars, and poems for fans of her poetry.
Journalist Castillo challenges the popular notion that peaceful exchanges occurred between the Franciscan monks and California Indians, showing instead how the Spanish occupation of California lured Indians into the missions where they faced forced labor and physical punishment.
In fact, the mission friars enslaved the California Indians and treated them with deliberate cruelty.
These two features of California Indian life have meant reduced economic activity and options for California Indians historically.
Researchers also have investigated whether ADH polymorphisms are present in Native Americans, specifically in the select population of Southwest California Indians.
Indian Summer: Traditional Life Among The Choinumne Indians Of California's San Joaquin Valley by Thomas Jefferson Mayfield offers an eye-witness account of life of the Native American people in the turn of California in the nineteenth and early twentieth century as described by the author, who is the only known outsider to have ever lived entirely among the California Indians while they were still leading their traditional lives.
Founded in 1991 at the Presidio of San Francisco and incorporated as a nonprofit organization in 1996, the California Indian Museum and Cultural Center (CIMCC) is creating a statewide, issues-based museum that gives California Indians a voice in the telling of their histories.
From 1975 to 2005, California Indians had access to D-Q University, formerly the state's only tribal college.

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