Umar

(redirected from Caliph Omar)
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Umar

(o͞omär`) or

Omar

(ō`mär), c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
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 as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power. The Muslim generals pushed conquests far and wide—into Syria, Egypt, and the Persian Empire. Umar also laid the administrative base of the empire, creating the office of kadi and establishing fixed taxes. He reopened the canals of Mesopotamia and the waterway from the Nile to the Red Sea. Umar was assassinated by a foreign slave. He had appointed a group to select his successor, and the choice fell on UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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.

Omar

, Umar
died 644 ad, the second caliph of Islam (634--44). During his reign Islamic armies conquered Syria and Mesopotamia: murdered
References in periodicals archive ?
When Amr returned after gaining victory, he had to choose a site for a new capital city, since Caliph Omar had decreed that it could not be in far-away Alexandria.
The minaret is associated with Aden Mosque that was built during the time of Caliph Omar Bin Abdulaziz.
"The minaret of this mosque, which was build by Caliph Omar bin al-Khattab, is the first in the whole of the Levant, and has been destroyed by the soldiers of the tyrant," it added, referring to President Assad.
Rousseau tells it this way: "It is said that the Caliph Omar, when asked what should be done with the Library of Alexandria, answered in these terms: 'If the Books in this library contain things contrary to the Koran they are bad and ought to be burned.
There are other examples of religious tolerance, especially in Istanbul and Jerusalem, where the Caliph Omar once refused to pray inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre lest his fellow believers turn this all-important church, which is believed to house the tomb of Jesus, into a mosque.
PARIS: When Jerusalem was conquered in 635 AD, the second caliph Omar Ibn Al-Kattab refused to pray in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, despite an invitation from the Christian patriarch Sophronius, for fear that his men invoke the precedent to turn the place of worship into a mosque and thus deprive the Christians of their right to freely practice their religion.
This state of tolerance and coexistence has exemplified relations between followers of both religions since the time of Caliph Omar Bin Al-Khatttab who laid the rules of interaction between Muslims and Christians.
As far as war ethics in the days of early Islam are concerned, several hadiths, or sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, forbid the killing of women and children, as is clearly stated in a hadith narrated by the Caliph Omar (Bukhari, 4:258).
During a recent US presentation in All Saints Church, Pasadena, Maxim stressed that in the mid-7th century when the second Muslim Caliph Omar Ibn Al Khattab set eyes on Bethlehem, he realised immediately that it was an important Christian shrine and decreed that Muslims would not disturb a single stone of the holy site.
Caliph Omar's leaders asked what should be done with them.
These include accusations of Sunni treachery against the fourth Caliph, the Imam 'Ali, customs such as the burning of effigies of the Caliph Omar, and in Iran, deeply rooted feelings of cultural superiority toward the Arabs.
He shows the tension between tribal spirit (asabiyah) and Islam and how Islam, especially under the Caliph Omar was quite successful in aligning the tribal spirit with the spirit of Islam (a larger asabiyah).