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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

References in periodicals archive ?
From its use of the traditional black color scheme on banners and attire, which was adopted during the Abbasid era, to its espousal of the tradition of bay'ah, which signifies allegiance to an individual as the caliph, ISIL appears to use the concept of a caliphate to justify some of its barbaric and violent actions.
8220;A range of social and political factors drive the contemporary jihadists and Caliphate groups,” Associate Professor Rane says.
After Talha and Zubayr apostasy, Muawiyah declared in a letter to A1 Zubair to be the caliphate of Damascus after him, and then Talha, but this is under the condition of oppression and occupation of Iraq.
Pro-IS sites are circulating images incorporating Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Morocco, Somalia and Nigeria into an expanding caliphate.
DUBAI: As fasting for Ramadan began, a Sunni terrorist group popularly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria proclaimed a caliphate, or religious-political dominion.
Tunisia's secularists said their fears about an Islamist takeover were being realized on Tuesday after Jbeili, whose moderate Islamist party won last month's election, invoked the revival of a caliphate, or Islamic state.
On the 90th anniversary of the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the vast Islamic Caliphate regime which fell in 1921 after WWI, thousands of members of the Radical Islamist organization Hizb ut-Tahrir rallied on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
They know that Iraqis have rejected Al-Qaeda, there will never be a caliphate in Iraq; the struggle for democracy now is the heart of our fight against terrorism and it is a struggle Iraqi people are winning," General Ray Odierno told a ceremony in one of Saddam Hussein s old palaces in Baghdad.
Then, during the process of decolonization, between 1955 and 1960, the British made the Caliphate the successor to their colonial power by rigging the Caliphates political party, the Northern People's Congress (NPC), into office.
The Empire in Transition: The Caliphates of Sulayman, aACAyUmar, and Yazid A.
Wasserstein sketches the history and significance of the caliphate in al-Andalus beginning with its creation in 929 A.
Naturally, the intellectual battle to accept or reject this concept is an old one, though its urgency in our times is evident as numerous extremist groups in dozens of societies look for salvation in the Caliphate.