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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nearly a century later, it is safe to say that the Caliphate is not yet dead.
This book contains an intriguing historical account that traces the lineage of the powerful concept of the caliphate from its inception to its modern manifestations.
“A range of social and political factors drive the contemporary jihadists and Caliphate groups,” Associate Professor Rane says.
DUBAI: As fasting for Ramadan began, a Sunni terrorist group popularly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria proclaimed a caliphate, or religious-political dominion.
On the 90th anniversary of the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the vast Islamic Caliphate regime which fell in 1921 after WWI, thousands of members of the Radical Islamist organization Hizb ut-Tahrir rallied on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
30.The aACAyAbbasid Caliphate in Equilibrium: The Caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A.D.
Based on his reading of there varied sources, Wasserstein persuasively argues against the accepted view that the deposition of Caliph Hisham III by Cordoban dissidents in 1031 signalled not only the end of his personal rule and the collapse of Umayyad family power, but also the disappearance of the caliphal institution itself Instead, a critical assessment of the ideas about the caliphate held by those who exercised power following the events of 1031--the Hammudid dynasty and the smaller taifa rulers--reveals that the institution endured until the Almoravids invaded Iberia more than fifty years later.
In response to what they perceived as the Obasanjo "menace", the Caliphate emirs met on March 28, 2005 in Kaduna under the auspices of the Nigerian Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs (NSCIA), of which the Sultan of Sokoto is the traditional Chairman.
Equally contentious, Al Raziq affirmed that the formation of the Caliphate was based on nothing more than political necessity and not, as Ibn Khaldun advanced in his Muqadimah, on Ijma (consensus).
Before Jonathan became president, the Caliphate used the Nigerian armed forces to destroy communities in the Niger Delta, as in the 1999 sacking of Odi by the Caliphate-loyalist Obasanjo Government.
2 tow, Hamadi Jebali, telling supporters: "We are in the sixth caliphate, God willing."
Tunisia's secularists said their fears about an Islamist takeover were being realized on Tuesday after Jbeili, whose moderate Islamist party won last month's election, invoked the revival of a caliphate, or Islamic state.