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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Documents of the case revealed that the Public Prosecution had received a report from the security authorities indicating that the defendant had delivered a sermon in a house of worship, in which he defamed the Caliphs and the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) in front of a large crowd of people.
THE English word Caliph is a translation of the Arabic word 'Khalifa'.
(2) Disappointingly, his handlers did not leave anything to chance, the security of the 'caliph being too important to risk with sloppy film-making.
"A caliph thousands of miles away which preaches violence and hatred gets more media attention than the caliph in our own city in London who preaches love and peace," Sabah Ahmedi tells me.
Rightly guided caliphs were so motivated for public service and not at all concerned about their own safety that three out of four were martyred.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei slammed the massive destruction of Islamic monuments attributed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH.), Imam Ali (AS), the caliphs and fighters of the early years of Islam on the pretext of expanding Hajj.
He said Umar (R.A) was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history and introduced the concept of welfare state to the modern world.
Hazrat Umar RA was one of the most powerful influential Muslim caliphs in history of Islam, they added.
1 / 4 The Prophet's Mosque underwent several expansions throughout its history, starting with the days of the Caliphs, followed by the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Ottomans, and finally, the Saudi era.
Ibn al-Sa'i, Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad.
According to Najib, only visitors allowed by the Saudi government may enter the Green Dome, which also houses the tombs of the Muslim Caliphs.
Sea of the Caliphs: The Mediterranean in the Medieval Islamic World