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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

References in periodicals archive ?
The protesters accused a number of officials in the government to support those, who working on sedition in Iraq through offend a number of Prophet's companions and Caliphs, in order to create sedition and sectarian fighting.
This had enabled the 'Abbasid caliphs to launch attacks on the islands in the territorial waters of Byzantine.
Throughout Islamic history, the caliphs looked into people's grievances, to ensure equality and justice.
According to that narrative, the reign of the pious Caliphs (Khulafa-e-Rashideen) was the brightest time in Muslim history and there was peace and prosperity all around.
Though caliphs came and went, though military commanders were capable or inept, the power of the Qur'an kept the Muslims true to their course and maintained that spirit of unity for which Muhammad (S) had laid the foundations.
It was under the next two caliphs, Umar and Uthman, both of them closely personally connected with Muhammad, that Islam started its triumphant march out of Arabia into the wider world.
She said despite being connected to religious rituals and the personal taste of founders of a particular civilization (kings, caliphs and princes), handicrafts have always born the characteristics and specificity of the civilization they depict.
The Abbasid caliphs valued Jerusalem as an Islamic holy site.
It was the Caliphs who encouraged scholars--including Muslims, Jews; and Christians--to translate ancient Greek texts into Arabic, and to build upon what the Greeks discovered with new scientific and technological advances of their own.
In keeping with medieval Sunni treatises on the subject of succession, ad-Dumaiji argues that the procedures for selecting an imam or caliph for the umma (Muslim Nation) must replicate the precedents set by the Four Righteous Caliphs who succeeded Mohammed.
The commonly held notion of the Abbasid caliphs being mere puppets from the Buyid period on is disproven in this study by Hanne (Florida Atlantic U.
By the early eighth century, two groups in particular had come to resent the rule of the Umayyads, the family of caliphs who took charge in 661 after the murder of Ali, the last direct descendant of the Prophet who lived from 570 to 632.