19) In his Pelopidas, Plutarch explicitly alludes to Ephorus and Callisthenes
from whom he no doubt also drew information for his Life of Epaminondas.
Another character in the novel, Callisthenes
, falls in love with Leucippe in a remarkably similar way.
Alexander had on his staff several Greek historians including Callisthenes
, Cleitarchos and Onesicritos, whose works have long been lost to posterity - but significantly those particular historians' works were sometimes used as sources by the very authors who several centuries later described the gardens in works that have survived to this day.
These versions, from the first century BC and later, ultimately rely on sources contemporary and near-contemporary to Alexander himself (late fourth / early third century BC), such as Callisthenes
, used by Aristobulus and Ptolemy, in their turn the principal sources of Arrian; and Onesicritus and Nearchus, used by Cleitarchus, who again served as source for the so-called 'vulgate' authors, Diodorus, Curtius and Trogus / Justin.
In his Life of Aristotle, Diogenes Laertius tells us how Aristotle had learned that his nephew Callisthenes
had been speaking too freely to Alexander, and how he had quoted to him two lines from Homer's Iliad, in which Thetis, mother of Achilles, had warned him of the dangers attaching to hasty speech:
Some Greeks, however, found the idea of divine worship of their leader harder to get used to and the expedition's official historian, Callisthenes
(a relative of Alexander's old tutor Aristotle), openly refused to bow down before his king in ceremonial obeisance as he thought it 'too Persian'.
He put the philosopher Callisthenes
to death for his seeming philosophical, indeed mutinous, stubbornness; but the chief thing he ever was heard to wish for was that Homer had been alive.
The organization (with numbers of species in parentheses for each genus, and names of families and tribes in bold font) is: Trachypachidae: Systolosomatini: Systolosoma (2), Trachypachini: Trachypachus (3); Carabidae: Pelophilini: Pelophila (2), Nebriini: Leistus (4), Nebria (53), Nipponebria (2), Notiokasiini: Notiokasis (1), Opisthiini: Opisthius (1), Notiophilini: Notiophilus (18), Cicindini: Cicindis (1), Omophronini: Omophron (17), Loricerini: Loricera (5), Carabini: Callisthenes
(24), Calopachys (4), Calosoma (55), Carabus (17), Ceroglossus (8), Cychrini: Cychrus (2), Scaphinotus (55), Sphaeroderus (5): Collyridini, Ctenosoma (109), for a total of 388 species.
For example, the historian Callisthenes
, who joined Alexander's campaign, and who may have cultivated its Homeric allusions, notes that Alexander defeated the Persians in the battle of Granicus in the same month that Troy had fallen.
Chalcidius (4th century AD) wrote that Alcmaeon (followed by Callisthenes
, a pupil of Aristotle, and Herophilus) first dissected the eye, and described the optic nerve and the 4 tunics comprising the walls of the eyeball.
For example, we have five different versions of how Callisthenes
, the official historian of Alexander
It is assumed on good grounds that they were drawing on memoirs left by Alexander's generals and on material from Callisthenes
(370-327 BCE), Alexander's own historian 'embedded' with his army (until he annoyed his commander-in-chief, who is said to have murdered him).