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Related to Calque: giardia, loan translation

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.


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de toute facon, c'est difficile [pour les collaborateurs du Sud] d'avoir les moyens de faire l'analyse parce qu'ils ne sont pas toujours au meme plan de competences que les chercheurs du Nord, parce qu'ils n'ont pas ete formes de maniere aussi poussee et que, finalement, on a adopte un plan de travail qui est plutot calque sur les savoir-faire developpes par les chercheurs du Nord [.
Sensible a la disparition des modes de vie traditionnels, au pillage des richesses ethnologiques, culturelles et artistiques, ainsi qu'a la desintegration des communautes face a un nouveau mode de vie calque sur le mirage occidental, l'artiste se comporte en garant de la culture africaine et de sa conservation sur le continent noir.
However, Eca could have arrived at Quartelmar by translating the near homophone quarter and main in the sense of sea, producing a calque, a less 'foreign' surname for the benefit of the Portuguese reader.
Moreover, in the transitional zone between the mesolect and the acrolect of the continuum, there are lexico-grammatical features such as conjunctions and subordinators which belong to the acrolect (the Standard English variety) as well as the mesolect, where they are used to calque a number of creole functions, that is, functions typical of registers of conversational discourse due to the fact that English-based Creoles occur predominantly in spoken discourse.
Briefly, Vinay and Darbelnet's (1995) categories of literal translation (which I have modified to account for obligatory and optional word order changes), transposition (obligatory and optional), modulation (fixed and free), equivalence and adaptation are used as subcategories of substitution in Delabastita (1993); borrowing and calque are used as subcategories of Delabastita's (1993) repetition; compensation is further subdivided into compensation by footnoting and compensation by splitting (Hervey & Higgins in Harvey 1995: 74); and the categories of addition and deletion remain unchanged.
D'autre part, l'idealisation des vacances et du temps libre se jumele a la crainte de la vacuite et a la confection d'un emploi du temps calque a l'image du rythme organise de la vie urbaine.
Zukofsky is using an English poet's Latinate calque on a late Greek name for a poetry collection to point to the fact that the Roman dramatic poem he's adapting is itself an adaptation from Hellenistic Greek.
Dame una quebrada, which is a "semantic transfer" or calque derived from "Give me a break," is a phrase that my Chicano buddies and I have been using for at least forty years.
Philologically, this occurrence, by which Greek pempte ousia was translated, element by element, into Latin quinta essentia, is known as a loan translation, or calque, a word derived from French calque 'an imitation or tracing,' insofar as one language is transposing the elements of another language into its own elements.
The matching efforts provided some insights into the meaning of occupational titles, the logic of missing records, and local practices in a bilingual society, such as ambiguities among printer, typographer, or compositor; the contemporary calque of garde-magasin for storekeeper; as well as a degree of interchangeability that reflected "real" identities or nuances, terms such as grocer, innkeeper or tavernkeeper, policeman or constable, and carpenter or joiner.
Ut is the Hungarian for road, thus the translation is somewhat of a structural calque of the original phrase, which contains the word alley.
En milieu urbain, la problematique en securite routiere est differente car elle se calque sur les schemas de deplacement et donc sur la mobilite (Andrey 2000).