Calque


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Related to Calque: giardia, loan translation

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

V. V. RASKIN

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By identifying those English-induced lexical units in the dailies, we would be clearly collecting valuable corpus-driven data, which would not only provide us with quantitative evidence of the use of loanwords and calques, but also convey adopted cultural features.
Lexical calque (of structure) - considered the most important of all types of calques as it represents a means of enriching the vocabulary with both new lexical units as well as with new meanings, in addition to those already existing for a particular word.
Among the attested examples, this word exists as a borrowing proper (word), it can undergo a partial morphological assimilation (augmentation-wordzicho, tordzicho); at times one can find a linguistic calque (stowo).
Son datos que recogen de otra investigadora de su mismo grupo (Yannick Brolles, Terminologie francaise de l'Internet, Y a-t-il une alternative aux calques et aux emprunts?
Les concerts et festivals se multiplient et l'on croise tres frequemment des jeunes adoptant un style vestimentaire calque sur celui des residents des ghettos americains (tee-shirts et casquettes des equipes de basketball ou de baseball americaines, boucles d'oreilles, chaussures de marques americaines .
D'apres ces memes chercheurs, differents problemes relationnels decoulent de la repartition tres inegale du pouvoir qui s'etablit immanquablement et qui se calque sur d'anciennes relations liees a l'histoire coloniale.
there are three elements of interest: the syntactic calque, where si 'if' prompts the Scots gif, and two borrowings: burges and marchand.
Loan Translation an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"
code Substitution higher or lower degree of naturalization (approximate) linguistic modernization equivalence topicalization nationalization Repetition total : non-translation, exoticization copy partial: calque, literal historization (through translation, word-for-word the mere intervention translation of time-place distance) Deletion reductive translation universalization abridged version under- dehistorization translation (through the removal of expressive reduction foreign cultural signs) Addition paraphrastic translation exoticization historiza- more explicit text tion (through the overtranslation positive addition of expressive amplification foreign cultural signs) Permutation (metatextual) (metatextual) compensation compensation Code S.
A detour through Lacan, Freud, Lyotard, and Deleuze establishes a matrix of contemporary theory to suggest that Haussmann's aim was a city more readable, rather than less--a calque rather than a carte (88).