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Related to Calque: giardia, loan translation

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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beseeching her mercy and grace because she is my sovereign lady." In the Canon's Yeoman's Tale, the Yeoman also uses a phrasal calque, perhaps hoping that the rhetorical effect will attract and hold his new audience.
While Tolkien does spend significant efforts guiding the reader to this important revelation via his signaling calques, this calquing does not end with the guards' judgments of the fellowship, making it unlikely that its main purpose is the privileging of discretion over orders.
It is thus a partial calque of Russian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
Many Slavic compounds are clearly loan translations or calques. (21) Some have been mentioned before.
Leading periodicals and dailies, such as La Lucha, La Discusion or Diario de la Marina, turned into a predictable showroom of loanwords and calques, through which a significant number of these lexical units were assimilated by Cuban Spanish.
In turn, Turco's historical placement teaches us something about Tolkien's' world and its place in myth and history, Tolkien's legendarium--after the Ainulindale and the Akallabeth, which (as Tom Shippey would put it) calque the Creation and the Flood in the Bible respectively--is located in the implied long stretch of pre-Abrahamic history about which the Bible lets us speculate.
Keywords: Anglicisms, calque, loan, neologisms, vocabulary.
the movie title [Engl.] Somewhere in time = [Rom.] Undeva, cindva [Somewhere, sometime.] (For details on the seven main translation strategies of borrowing, calque, literalism, transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation see Hatim & Munday 2004: 149-151)
It is also important to distinguish between calque and loan word.
17): dans la traduction un calque du signifie, qui resulte neutre sur le plan du style, est employe.
On the eve of the wedding the Houchins entertained the wedding party, family, and friends with cocktails and dinner at the Calque County Arts Center.
(6) This is 'calque' in the French text, a term that we translate as tracing, following Massumi's translation of Deleuze (Deleuze and Guattari, 2004, page 13).