In sum, we have seen that, as opposed to a meaningless hodge-podge of English and Spanish, Spanglish is in fact the result of bilinguals' use of borrowings, calques
, semantic extensions, nonce borrowings, and the skillful mixture of two grammars in cases of code-switching and code-mixing.
Extraction of anglicisms and calques
produced in a specific historical period: 1930-1959.
fard a levres), phraseological calques
after French, are not recorded by dictionaries, but they are used frequently (10).
The main approaches to translating foreign words and expressions into the native language based on foreignizing and domesticating strategies have been analysed, and their advantages and disadvantages, depending on the determined status of a particular language and the traditional attitudes of linguists and translators from a particular country to the use of borrowings, calques
, translation changes and other translation techniques have been described.
The analysis shows that what might be called a diffraction of the representational load originates in dialogue and in a constant relay between two modes of representation: representation through the plan (maps, calques
) and representation through the situation (block diagrams, texts).
Among the attested examples, this word exists as a borrowing proper (word), it can undergo a partial morphological assimilation (augmentation-wordzicho, tordzicho); at times one can find a linguistic calque
Similarly, in the case of lexical calques
, TRA9 shows the highest count (CAL = eighteen), while TRA8 and TRA4 show very similar values (CAL = seventeen).
Comme dans la langue commune, les estrangeirismos conservent leur forme graphique originelle, alors que les emprunts peuvent resulter de calques
ou d'adaptation au systeme de la langue cible, tant dans sa forme pure que dans sa forme hybride (terme etranger et une forme vernaculaire).
The classification below includes the following categories: calques
, borrowings, cognates and copies (or instances of code-switching).
Loan Translation an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque
for the German `Ubermensch'"
Problems of Latvian influence in Livonian were dealt with also in his book "Lahisukukielten muoto-oppia ja lainasuhteita" (Castrenianumin toimitteita 9, 1974), where Latvian calques
and semantic borrowings and influences in the usage of the dative case in Livonian are studied.
Some of the key types are adapted borrowings (rentowanie, dwu-bedrumowy, superwajzorka, tajpowac), calques
(maszyna do prania, brac zdjecie, zgubic wage), semantic modifications (afera in the sense of 'affair', standard Polish romans).