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1 City (1990 pop. 11,514), seat of Dorchester co., E Md., Eastern Shore, a port of entry on the Choptank River at its mouth on Chesapeake Bay; founded 1684, inc. as a city 1884. It is a fishing and yachting center. The city has shipyards, seafood and vegetable canneries, and electronic, clothing, and printing industries, and tourism is also important. Nearby Old Trinity Church (c.1675; restored 1960) is said to be the oldest church in the United States still in use. The Harriet Tubman–Underground Railroad national monument and state park and Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge are also nearby. 2 City (1990 pop. 95,802), seat of Middlesex co., E Mass., across the Charles River from Boston; settled 1630 as New Towne, inc. as a city 1846. A famous educational and research center, it is the seat of Harvard (founded 1636), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lesley College, and several theological seminaries. Its printing and publishing industry dates from about 1639, when Stephen Daye established the first printing press in America. Cambridge was a gathering place for American Revolutionary troops; there, on July 3, 1775, Washington took command. It was the first seat of the Massachusetts constitutional convention of 1780. Its numerous historic houses and sites include the Cooper-Frost-Austin house (c.1657); Harvard Yard, the old center of the university campus; and Mt. Auburn Cemetery, where Lowell, Longfellow, Mary Baker Eddy, and other notables are buried. The city's neighborhoods include fashionable Harvard Square; Kendall Square, a computing and biotechnology hub near MIT; and working-class East Cambridge. 3 City (1990 pop. 11,748), seat of Guernsey co., E central Ohio; settled 1798 by immigrants from the Isle of Guernsey, inc. 1837. It is the trade and manufacturing center for a dairy and livestock area. Lakes and parks surround the city. The large Salt Fork State Park is nearby.


(kām`brĭj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent., and parts of Waterloo and North Dumfries townships. Cambridge is heavily industrialized, with manufactures such as textiles, chemicals, automobiles, and plastics. With WaterlooWaterloo
. 1 City (1991 pop. 71,181), SE Ont., Canada. It adjoins Kitchener. Several large insurance companies have their main offices there, and the adjoining cities form a high technology hub.
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city (1991 pop. 168,282), Regional Municipality of Waterloo, S Ont., Canada, in the Grand River valley. Settled largely by Mennonites from Pennsylvania in 1806, it was known as Berlin until 1916, when it was renamed in memory of Lord Kitchener.
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 and GuelphGuelph
, city (1991 pop. 87,976), S Ont., Canada, on the Speed River. It is an industrial and agricultural center located in one of Canada's most densely populated regions.
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, Cambridge makes up the "Canadian Technology Triangle."


city (1991 pop. 87,111) and district, Cambridgeshire, E central England, on the River Cam. The city, set in flat country, is most famous as the site of the Univ. of CambridgeCambridge, University of,
at Cambridge, England, one of the oldest English-language universities in the world. Originating in the early 12th cent. (legend places its origin even earlier than that of the Univ.
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, and tourism is an economic mainstay. Originally the site of a Roman military camp, Cambridge was an administrative and trading center in Anglo-Saxon times. William IWilliam I
or William the Conqueror,
1027?–1087, king of England (1066–87). Earnest and resourceful, William was not only one of the greatest of English monarchs but a pivotal figure in European history as well.
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 had a fort and mint constructed, and two monastic establishments were built in early medieval times. The university has its origins in the 12th cent. Central Cambridge still maintains much of its medieval atmosphere and appearance. Its noted medieval churches include St. Benet's or Bene't's, the oldest, dating from the late Saxon period; St. Edward's (begun 12th cent.), where Hugh LatimerLatimer, Hugh
, 1485?–1555, English bishop and Protestant martyr. Latimer was educated at Cambridge, entered the church, and came under the influence of the Reformation.
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 preached; St. Mary the Great (1478), the university church; and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of four Norman round churches in England. Cambridge also has varied light industries. High-technology firms, drawing on the university's scientific prominence, have multiplied in recent years, and the city has come to be called "Silicon Fen."
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in England. Administrative center of the county of Cambridgeshire.

Cambridge is situated 70 km north of London, on the River Cam, a tributary of the Ouse. Population, 103,700 (1973). It is one of the oldest university cities, with a university dating from the 13th century. Local industry includes mechanical engineering (scientific equipment and instruments, radioelectronics), food processing, and printing.

The first written mention of Cambridge was in 730. During the English Bourgeois Revolution of the 17th century, Cambridge was an important stronghold of the Parliamentary forces.

Since the Middle Ages, Cambridge has been a planned city, and the colleges, grouped around square courtyards, form architectural ensembles. Among the noteworthy buildings are the round Romanesque Church of the Holy Sepulchre (c. 1101–30), the Late Gothic King’s College Chapel (1446–1515), the classical Trinity College library (1676–84; architect, C. Wren), and the university senate (1722–30; architect, G. Gibbs). The Fitz-william Museum houses the university’s archaeology and art collection.


Fyfe, T. Architecture in Cambridge. Cambridge, 1942.



a city in the northeastern USA, in Massachusetts; a suburb of Boston. Population, 100,000 (1970). The city is a major scientific center and the site of Harvard University and an institute of technology. It has chemical and machine-building enterprises. Cambridge was founded in 1630.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


one of two leading British universities (since 1231); consists of 24 colleges. [Br. Education: Payton, 116]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a city in E England, administrative centre of Cambridgeshire, on the River Cam: centred around the university, founded in the 12th century: electronics, biotechnology. Pop.: 117 717 (2001)
2. short for Cambridgeshire
3. a city in the US, in E Massachusetts: educational centre, with Harvard University (1636) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pop.: 101 587 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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The Cambridge Assessment International Education (CAIE) released the names of the Outstanding Cambridge Learner Award (OCLA) winners in Pakistan, showing that a total of 75 students in Sindh and Balochistan performed exceptionally in the examinations, while 21 students attained the highest marks in the world and 11 students attained the highest marks in Pakistan in a single subject.
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