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Date of birth unknown; died in 522 B.C. Ancient Persian king of the Achaemenid dynasty; ruled from 530 to 522. Son of Cyrus the Great.
In 525, Cambyses conquered Egypt, defeating the Egyptian army at Pelusium, and took Pharaoh Psamtik III prisoner. After seizing the throne of Egypt, Cambyses founded what was, according to the calculation of the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho, the 27th dynasty of pharaohs. In 524 he invaded Cush but was defeated. Upon learning of the outbreak of Gaumata the Magian’s rebellion against him in 522, Cambyses left for Persia. He died en route under mysterious circumstances.
REFERENCESDandamaev, M. A. Iran pri pervykh Akhemenidakh. Moscow, 1963.
Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago, 1948.