Note that this is not simply a response to National Socialism (which, Foucault points out, was in any case the rule of a party not of a state) but to the far longer history of etatism in Germany--Weimar, World War I's planned economy, Bismarck, polizei, cameralism
, and so forth.
Johnson, The Concept of Bureaucracy in Cameralism
, 79 POL.
Just as we know that Kant, with all his submissiveness, never lost his sympathy for advanced political hopes, (2) so too does a reassessment of Jakob show a good deal of conservatism in this representative of Halle cameralism
and mercantilism were possible in a society that actively opposed individualism and democracy.
The origins of this peculiarly German discipline lay in the early modern territorial state, in which Cameralism
developed as a body of writing concerned not so much with the ultimate purpose of the state as with a description of what the state actually does.
Many European textbooks further explain how European universities responded by establishing the first chairs in cameralism
The former held that low wages and a prosperous nation are compatible, whereas the German cameralism
thought that for a nation to flourish its population had to be prosperous.
He is working on a history of the German sciences of state and cameralism
in the nineteenth century, a rubric that included agriculture and technology.
By the end of the 18th century, first in Germany and then in Russia, cameralism
gradually began to give way to more liberal ideas of autonomy and self-determination (Adam Smith, the French physiocrats, Kant).
His broad reference to cameralism
and Mercantilism, and more specifically to von Hornigk's Osterreich Uber Alles, does not really fit the bill on this.
This state-society symbiosis remained a self-evident point of departure throughout the entire tradition which linked eighteenth-century Cameralism
to its nineteenth-century successor, Nationalokonomie dominating even Weber' s 1895 inaugural lecture as Professor of National Economy at Freiburg University (Weber, 1994: 1ff; Hennis, 1987).
Of particular concern are the seldom-studied influence of the German Enlightenment and its products - cameralism
, pietism, and neo-stoicism - and the cultural factors that influenced individual and group development and behavior.