Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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Canadian Arctic Archipelago

 

a group of islands belonging to Canada and located off the northern coast of North America. Area, 1.3 million sq km. The largest islands are Baffin, Ellesmere, Victoria, Banks, and Devon. The archipelago is located within the continental shelf. On the north and the east it is washed by the Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea, Lincoln Sea, Robson and Kennedy channels, Kane Basin, Smith Sound, and Baffin Bay) and on the southeast and south, by the Atlantic Ocean (Davis Strait, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin). The depth of the straits ranges from 150 to 300 m.

In the east the terrain is high-mountainous. The eastern shores of Ellesmere, Devon, and Baffin islands, which are made up of ancient crystalline rocks, are deeply indented by fjords, have rocky cliffs, and are difficult to reach. The plateau-like summits, which are up to 1, 500–3, 000 m Ijigh, are covered with ice caps. The central and southern portions of the archipelago are occupied by low-mountain ridges, hilly uplands, and benched plateaus from 200–500 m high, which consist primarily of sedimentary rocks of the Paleozoic era. The coasts of Victoria, Banks, and Prince of Wales islands are, for the most part, perpendicular and deeply dissected by valleys. The northwestern part of the archipelago (Prince Patrick, Mackenzie King, Borden, and Ellef Ringnes islands) is a low-lying area made up of friable marine deposits and characterized by extensive permafrost forms of terrain. The most important minerals are petroleum and natural gas (Melville, Bathurst, and Cornwallis islands) and iron ores (the northern part of Baffin Island).

The climate is arctic and extremely harsh. In the east it is moister and in the west, sharply continental. The average January temperature ranges from − 23°C in the southeast to − 35°C in the northwest, and the average July temperature varies from 7°C in the south to 4°C in the north. The absolute minimum temperatures go as low as − 50°C. The total annual precipitation ranges from 400–450 mm in the southeast to 100 mm and less in the north. Perennially frozen soils are prevalent everywhere.

Today, glaciation is widely developed in the north and northeast (total area, 154, 000 sq km). At the northern tip of Ellesmere Island there is a region of shelf ice up to 20 km wide that gives rise to arctic ice islands. The boundary of the perennial pack ice runs along the northwestern edge of the archipelago. The northwest maritime route is difficult to reach. During the summers the eastern straits (Hudson, Davis, and Lancaster), as well as the bodies of water along the continental coastline (Amundsen Gulf, Dolphin and Union Strait, and Queen Maud Gulf), are the most free of ice.

The flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago includes 340 species of higher plants. In the extreme north the vegetation of the arctic wastelands prevails. The south is characterized by mossy-lichen and mossy-scrub tundras on typical tundra soils, for the most part rocky. The fauna of the archipelago consists chiefly of polar species—reindeer, polar bears, arctic foxes, lemmings, and alpine partridges. The most typical indigenous species is the musk ox. The coastal waters are inhabited by seals, whales, and Atlantic walruses.

The population of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (several thousand persons, primarily Eskimo) is engaged in sea hunting, hunting, and fishing. The most important populated points are Frobisher Bay (population, 1, 631 in 1966), which is the site of an international airport, Cambridge Bay, with its trading post and large airport, and Resolute, which has a scientific observatory.

REFERENCES

Agranat, G. A., A. B. Kupriianov, and V. F. Puzanova. Naselenie i resursy Amerikanskogo Severa. Moscow, 1963.
Antipova, A. V. Kanada: Priroda i estestvennye resursy. Moscow, 1965.
Dunbar, M., and K. Greenaway. Arctic Canada From the Air. Ottawa, 1956.
Swithinbank, C. Ice Atlas of Arctic Canada. Ottawa, 1960.
Thompson, H. A. The Climate of the Canadian Arctic. Ottawa, 1967.

A. V. ANTIPOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Using diplomatic and military resources to protect the worlds maritime trade routes will become increasingly important; especially as melting summer sea ice opens up navigable lanes across the top of Russia and through the Canadian archipelago.
The cartogram shows the spatial patterns in the higher concentration of thicker sea ice towards the Canadian archipelago and the Greenlandic coast, while it appears much thinner along the Russian coast.
The voyage, which was made without the previous authorization of Canada, was based on the legal assumption that the waters between the islands of the Canadian archipelago were subject to the regimes of either freedom of navigation (applicable on the high seas) or right of passage (applicable in international straits) (Pharand y Legault, 1984; Pharand, 2007: 3).
The altered circulation pattern appears to be further modulated in high latitudes by residual snow cover and sea ice around the Canadian Archipelago and by a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
The most important of these issues is federal-versus-territorial jurisdiction over the internal waters of the Canadian Archipelago.
The Canadian archipelago is an area where climate is changing rapidly, and the glaciers here contain enough ice that we should not ignore their contribution to sea-level rise.
The islands in the Canadian archipelago slow navigation, and the ice lingers there in a way that it doesn't along the Northern Sea Route.
Greenland, in turn, helped to shape emerging visions of Arctic nature and Arctic Aboriginal people well before the islands and inhabitants of the Canadian archipelago were subjected to the scrutiny of explorers, artists, and naturalists.
The Northwest Passage, a frozen sea route through the Arctic Ocean among the Canadian Archipelago, connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
In 1985, the Polar Sea, an ice breaker flying a United States' flag, attempted to navigate through the waters of the Canadian Archipelago connecting the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, a route known as the for centuries as the "Northwest Passage.
One basis for a sovereignty claim over the waters between the islands of the Canadian archipelago is that they are the internal waters of Canada on the basis of historic title.

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