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the present-day population of Canada, which totals 21.8 million (1971 estimate).

The Canadian population consists of two nations (natsii; nations in the historical sense)—French Canadians and English Canadians—a number of other nationality groups, and the Indian and Eskimo national minorities.

French Canadians make up about 30 percent of the entire population of the country and more than 80 percent of the population of the province of Quebec. The nucleus of the French-Canadian nation, which developed at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, consisted of the first European settlers in Canada (Frenchmen and Bretons), who founded the colony of New France during the first half of the 17th century. In 1763, New France became a British colony. In the struggle against British colonialism the French Canadians defended their language (French), which in 1968 became one of the country’s two official languages. In addition, they have preserved their national culture. The French Canadians have raised the issue of national self-determination. The majority of French Canadians are Catholics.

After Canada became a British colony, it was rapidly settled by emigrants from Great Britain and its colonies in America. The influx of new settlers created a numerical imbalance in which the English-speaking population outnumbered the French-speaking. The English Canadians occupied a dominant position in the country. The economic growth of the country, the struggle for independence from Great Britain, and the armed struggle against several attempts by the USA to annex Canada, as well as against economic domination by US monopoly capital, contributed to the growth of a sense of national identity among the English Canadians. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th the English-Canadian nation took shape. Representing about 44 percent of Canada’s present population, the English Canadians have created their own national culture. They include several ethnic groups: English, Scots, Irish, and assimilated settlers from continental Europe. Their language is English, with certain unique traits. The majority of religious English Canadians are Protestants of various denominations. Most of the Irish, however, are Catholic.

In addition to the two principal nations, the Canadian population includes numerous nonassimilated groups of recent (20th-century) settlers (about 25 percent of the population). The most important of them are Germans, Ukrainians, Italians, Jews, Poles, and Dutch. The Indians (more than 240, 000) and Eskimo (about 17, 000) are oppressed national minorities.


Narody Ameriki, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959. (Contains bibliographies, pp. 621, 625.)
Berzina, M. Ia. Formirovanie etnicheskogo sostava naseleniia Kanady (Etnostatisticheskoe issledovanie).Moscow, 1971.
Ryerson, S. B. Unequal Union. [Toronto] 1968.


References in classic literature ?
On Tuesday afternoon a Boston lawyer, who had been trying a case in Vermont, was standing on the siding at White River Junction when the Canadian Express pulled by on its northward journey.
Who calls himself Canadian calls himself French; and, little communicative as Ned Land was, I must admit that he took a certain liking for me.
He related his fishing, and his combats, with natural poetry of expression; his recital took the form of an epic poem, and I seemed to be listening to a Canadian Homer singing the Iliad of the regions of the North.
Wooden ships--that is possible," replied the Canadian, "but I have never seen it done; and, until further proof, I deny that whales, cetaceans, or sea-unicorns could ever produce the effect you describe.
Yes--certainly--perhaps," replied the Canadian, shaken by these figures, but not yet willing to give in.
The Canadian traders, for a long time, had troublesome competitors in the British merchants of New York, who inveigled the Indian hunters and the coureurs des bois to their posts, and traded with them on more favorable terms.
They were wrapped in rich furs, their huge canoes freighted with every convenience and luxury, and manned by Canadian voyageurs, as obedient as Highland clansmen.
While the chiefs thus revelled in hall, and made the rafters resound with bursts of loyalty and old Scottish songs, chanted in voices cracked and sharpened by the northern blast, their merriment was echoed and prolonged by a mongrel legion of retainers, Canadian voyageurs, half-breeds, Indian hunters, and vagabond hangers-on who feasted sumptuously without on the crumbs that fell from their table, and made the welkin ring with old French ditties, mingled with Indian yelps and yellings.
Out came the sunset; but in spite of this heroic mutilation the editor of the Canadian Woman sent Averil's Atonement back so promptly that the indignant Diana declared that it couldn't have been read at all, and vowed she was going to stop her subscription immediately.
And--I have no designs on a great Canadian novel," laughed Anne.
You ought to have a statue," cried the Canadian, as he came back, radiant, from the telephone.
The measure of our success can be the pace at which knowledge is acquired, and the degree to which this new knowledge is enhancing the lives of Canadians.

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