Cleanliness was evaluated according to a 5-score index system, previously used (23) and codified by Hulsmann et al., (25) which assesses the presence, quantity, and distribution of the smear layer as follows: score 1, smear layer is completely absent; most tubules are patent and debris-free; score 2, smear layer covering > 25% of the canal wall and dentinal tubules; score 3, smear layer evident in 25%-50% of the canal surface
and tubules; score 4, smear layer evident in 50%-75% of the canal surface
and tubules; and score 5, smear layer covering 75%-100% of the canal surface
The concave tooth surface was minimally grounded to achieve a flat surface to enable placement in the tissue culture wells, exposing the root canal surface
(34) showed that there were no significant differences between PUI and the XP-endo Finisher in removing debris from the root canal surface
. Alves et al.
Five pounds of angry fish landed flat on the canal surface
, making a crater in the once-quiet surface.
(a) Colonization of Enterococcus faecalis and a biofilm-like structure on the canal surface
after 4 weeks of incubation (magnification, 3000x).
New methods for constructing a canal surface
surrounding a biharmonic curve in the Lorentzian Heisenberg group [Heis.sup.3] were given, (KORPINAR; TURHAN, 2010; 2011; 2012).
Tenders are invited for Execution of HOG CANAL Surface
Flow Minor Irrigation Scheme under Uluberia-I Block in the District of Howrah.
As Zehnder  emphasized, optimal cleaning requires direct contact of the irrigant with the root canal surface
Through this software, the presence of any gap between the canal surface
and obturation was measured and calculated as a percentage from the total canal periphery.
In small and/or round canals, micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) studies have reported that different instrumentation systems leave approximately 10% to 50% of the full canal surface
area unprepared (Figure 3) (Table 1) (7,14,16,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38) These figures can be even higher when only the apical canal surface
is evaluated (Table 1).
For the molar deciduous teeth, in the studies comparing the rotary tool system and K type file, the canal shaping performed by rotary tool system was completed faster than the K type, furthermore, it was demonstrated that the rotary tool system enables smoother canal surface
and more conical shape, and facilitated the flow of the filling material within the canal (20,21).
(3) The presence of smear layer prevents the penetration of the intra canal medication into the irregularities of the complex root canal system and also prevents the complete adaptation of obturation material to the prepared root canal surface