chemotherapy

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chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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It is composed of a highly-selective NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, and palonosetron, the pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 receptor antagonist which prevents nausea and vomiting during both the acute and delayed phase after cancer chemotherapy. CJ Healthcare licensed AKYNZEO from Helsinn in 2012.
AKYNZEO(R) (fosnetupitant 235mg/palonosetron 0.25) for injection was approved in April 2018 in the United States and is indicated in combination with dexamethasone in adults for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.
Cardinale and her associates pioneered the concept of monitoring cardiotoxicity following cancer chemotherapy by measuring serum troponin levels.
To briefly review the available technology, specific treatment modalities include total parenteral nutritional support, hydration fluid therapy, intermittent antibiotic therapy, cancer chemotherapy and patient-controlled analgesia.
Cancer chemotherapy and AIDS have become focal points in this issue, as new drugs or biologicals can be quite expensive and much of the drug therapy can be categorized as "investigational," a buzzword that signals negative coverage decisions by third-party payers.
He said: "However, patient safety is always our number one priority and that is why we have taken action to rapidly change our approach to breast cancer chemotherapy, ensuring it is in line with practice across the rest of Scotland."
Oral use of AKYNZEO in adults for the prevention of acute and delayed CINV associated with highly emetogenic cisplatin-based cancer chemotherapy and moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy was approved by the EU in May 2015.
And, if the diagnosis does come early, access and use of breast cancer chemotherapy treatments-even the generic inexpensive options-aren't readily available.
Platinum and other heavy metal compounds in cancer chemotherapy; molecular mechanisms and clinical applications.
In the prospective observational study, the drug, which is typically used for treating nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy patients, was not associated with an increased risk of fetal malformations, reported Adrienne Einarson, R.N., of the University of Toronto and her colleagues (BJOG 2004;111:940-3).
WASHINGTON -- Cancer chemotherapy, notorious for its grueling side effects, appears to have a silver lining: It reduces restenosis within coronary stents, Dr.

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