Candida

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candidiasis

candidiasis (kănˌdĭdīˈəsĭs), infection caused by fungi of the genus Candida; also called moniliasis after a former name of the genus. The most common forms of candidiasis, caused by C. albicans, are infections of the mucous membranes of the mouth (also known as thrush) and of the vagina and often the vulva (also known as yeast infection). The fungus C. albicans is a normal inhabitant of the mouth and vagina, and its growth is usually kept in check by certain bacteria that also live in these areas. When the balance of these organisms is disturbed by antibiotic treatment, by hormonal imbalances, or by a weakening of the body's resistance to disease (as occurs in AIDS), the fungus can begin to proliferate. Candidiasis of the penis (usually traceable to a female with the infection) is called balanitis. Candidal infections are most often treated topically with antifungal drugs such as clotrimazole, nystatin and miconazole, but oral or intravenous antifungal drugs are prescribed when the infection does not respond to topical treatments.

Invasive candidiasis, a more serious infection, occurs most commonly when Candida fungi invade the bloodstream. Hospital and nursing home patients, such as those with a central venous catheter, in an intensive care unit, with weakened immune system, or taking broad-spectrum antibiotics, are most likely to develop invasive candidiasis. Antifungal medications may be prescribed prophylactically to patients who are likely to develop invasive candidiasis. An invasive infection is typically treated by an echinocandin administered intravenously.

C. auris, another species that causes invasive candidiasis, typically infects the bloodstream, wounds, or the ear, and especially affects individuals with weakened immune systems. First identified in Japan in 2009, it is of concern because most forms of the fungus are drug resistant and some are multidrug resistant; additionally, infection can be difficult to identify from its primary symptoms of fever, aches, and fatigue. It has caused outbreaks in health-care facilities, where it can be difficult to eradicate.

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Candida

[′kan·də·də]
(mycology)
A genus of yeastlike, pathogenic imperfect fungi that produce very small mycelia.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Candida

ever faithful to husband. [Br. Lit.: Candida]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ozturk, Immobilization of Lipase from Candida rugosa on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Supports, Master's thesis, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey, 2001.
Dalai, "Hydrolysis of tuna fish oil using Candida rugosa lipase for producing fatty acids containing DHA," International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, vol.
Enantioselective synthesis of (S)-ibuprofen ester prodrug in cyclohexane by Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on accurel MP 1000.
In other cases, the mixture of immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases was reported to give soybean conversion at 99% but the transesterification consumed 21 hours [49, 50].
Lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) (with nominal specific lipolytic activity of 1468 IU/[mg.sub.solid]) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie Gmbh (Germany).
(1997) Coconut cake: a potent substrate for production of lipase by Candida rugosa in solid-state fermentation.
Computational approach to solvent-free synthesis of ethyl oleate using Candida rugosa and Candida antarctica B Lipases.
camembertii 420 -- 14 (R) Porcine Pancreas 420 -- 5 (S) Candida rugosa 300 10 (S) 31 (R) wheat Germ 480 3 (S) 20 (R) Lipase Conv.
Outbreak of Candida rugosa mastitis in a dairy herd after intramammary antibiotic treatment.
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida rugosa, Candida ethanolica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia membranifaciens were discovered in non-fermented TMR before being subjected to air exposure.
(2004a) immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (LCR) and pancreatic lipase (LPP) in sol-gel matrix and obtained immobilization yields of 12 and 7.49% by physical adsorption and 7.93 and 5.80% by covalent attachment, respectively.
Thermal deactivation of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL), respectively, in their native and immobilized forms has been studied [43, 44].