sweet potato(redirected from Candied yams)
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(Ipomoea batatas), a species of rhizocarpous plants of the genus Ipomoea, of the bindweed family. In the tropics it is cultivated as a perennial; in the subtropics, in annual cultures. The stalks (runners) are procumbent and 1–5 m long; the leaves, whole and palmatilo-bate, and the flowers, pink or white, large, and funnelshaped. There is cross-pollination. The fruit is a four-seed boll and seeds are black or brown, 3.5–4.5 mm in diameter. The sweet potato forms a nest of root tubers of various forms and coloring, which contain 24–28 percent starch and sugar when ripe. The tubers weigh from 200 g to 3 kg and even 10 kg (sometimes more). Sweet potatoes can be multiplied from the shoots of sprouted tubers and sections of the runners. The plant normally grows and develops in temperatures no lower than 20° c, optimally 25°–30° C. Sweet potato tubers are used as food; processed into preserves, flour, starch, and syrup; and used to feed livestock. The greens are a highly nutritious feed. The native home of the sweet potato is Mexico and Central America. Its cultivation is widespread in India, Indonesia, China, Japan, Spain, Italy, and the Usa. In 1965 the world planting of sweet potatoes (together with yams) was 16 million hectares and the average yield was 67 centners per hectare (from 50 centners in the Philippines to 198 centners in Japan). In the Ussr sweet potatoes are grown only in experimental plantings in Turkmenia and Georgia, where the yield is 400–600 centners per hectare.
REFERENCESAronov, V. L. Kul’tura batata v SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Siniagin, I. I. “Kul’tura batata v subtropicheskikh i tropicheskikh stranakh.” Sel’skoe khoziaistvo za rubezhom: Rastenievodstvo, 1962, no. 3.
V. L. ARONOV