Cannae


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Cannae

(kăn`ē), ancient village, Apulia, SE Italy, scene in 216 B.C. of HannibalHannibal
, b. 247 B.C., d. 183 or 182 B.C. Carthaginian general, an implacable and formidable enemy of Rome. Although knowledge of him is based primarily on the reports of his enemies, Hannibal appears to have been both just and merciful. He is renowned for his tactical genius.
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's crushing defeat of the Romans. Hannibal's troops assumed a crescent-shaped formation to meet the Roman troops, which were especially concentrated in the center. As the Romans advanced, Hannibal by brilliant strategy managed to encircle the entire Roman force and cut it to pieces.

Cannae

 

village in southeastern Italy on the Aufidus River (modern Ofanto River) near which, on Aug. 2, 216 B.C., occurred the largest battle of the Second Punic War, between the Roman Army commanded on the day of battle by Consul Terentius Varro and Hannibal’s Carthaginian Army. The Roman Army comprised 80, 000 infantry and 6, 000 cavalry, of which 63, 000 infantry and all the cavalry participated in the battle; the Carthaginian Army comprised 40, 000 infantry and 10, 000 cavalry. The Roman infantry, in a deep and dense battle formation, attacked the center of the Carthaginian forces and pushed them back. But the Carthaginian cavalry crushed the Roman cavalry on the flanks, whereupon the Roman infantry was surrounded and virtually wiped out. The Roman losses were 48, 000 killed and 10, 000 taken prisoner; the Carthaginians lost 6, 000.

After the defeat of the Roman Army, many southern Italian and Sicilian cities defected to Hannibal’s side. However, owing to the lack of forces, Hannibal was unable to take advantage of the victory and move against Rome. The battle of Cannae is an outstanding example of the art of warfare. “Never before had an entire army been so completely crushed” (F. Engels, Izbr. voen. proizvedeniia, 1956, p. 211).

REFERENCES

Razin, E. A. Istoriia voennogo iskusstva, vol. 1. Moscow, 1955.
Strokov, A. A. Istoriia voennogo iskusstva, vol. 1. Moscow, 1955.
Del’briuk, G. Istoriia voennogo iskusstva v ramkakh politicheskoi istorii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1936.
Shliffen, A. Kanny, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.

Cannae

perhaps Hannibal’s greatest victory (216 B.C.). [Rom. Hist.: Harbottle Battles, 48]
See: Battle

Cannae

an ancient city in SE Italy: scene of a victory by Hannibal over the Romans (216 bc)
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, Adrian Goldsworthy has published an excellent book on Cannae (Cannae: Hannibal's Greatest Victory, Phoenix Press, 2007) and another on the entire struggle between Rome and Carthage (The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146BC, Cassel, 2002).
A unifying and overly dramatized theme becomes the fate of the survivors of Cannae, who were retained in Roman service but relegated to Sicily and subsequently became the core of Scipio's army for the victorious African campaign of 204-202 BC.
The two consuls marched immediately to Cannae to face the Carthaginian army.
Cannae was situated on a hill overlooking a very broad plain across which the sluggish River Aufidus flowed to the sea.
Strachan said: "Somebody sits along from my wife and shouts he (Nakamura) cannae tackle and he cannae head it.
Armed then with such information, the armchair theorist or wargamer should be able to argue like an expert about such battles as Cannae, Zama, Magnesia or Pharsalus.
They consider such aspects as the encomium as aestheticization of power, linking the Saguntum and Cannae episodes in Silius Italicus' Punica, and the unity of Martial's metres.
Hannibal's clashes at the major battles of the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae are memorably rendered.
Most of the book is devoted to the question of the battle fought at Cannae.
216 Hannibal defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae.
Books abound on Hannibal's encirclement at Cannae, the stealth of Arminius, Rommel's use of Panzers, or LeMay's devilish brew over Tokyo," he notes.