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process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265°F; (116°–129°C;), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212°F; (100°C;). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas AppertAppert, Nicolas
, also known as François Appert
, 1750–1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy.
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. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of "victory gardens" was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).


(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
References in periodicals archive ?
The Kake Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy was established after the logging era met a similar fate as the canning industry.
However, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater from the vegetable and fruit canning industry was not as efficient.
Until recently, little work has been done to support the bean canning industry in the region.
Starting out tilling the soil at a 50-acre family farm near the village of Ardooie in the 1950s, and working full time as a farmer until 1960, he initially raised crops to be supplied to the canning industry.
It also mentions his work in securing a government-funded energy conservation project for the canning industry, and in initiating industrial training for university students at Campden BR1.
The Japanese Foreign Ministry has expressed gratitude and is planning to swiftly move to accept the offer from the tiny low-lying country, which has received support from Japan in building embankments and promoting its canning industry.
Abstract: The research was carried out with the following purpose:--to determine the level of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of certain vegetable species taken from polluted industrial areas and the degree to which their content is modified during technological processing operations;--to study the possibilities in which fresh vegetable species with a high content of heavy metals (an exceed of LMA) can be used in the canning industry, in conditions assuring full safety for consumers.
PURITY FG Seamer-E fluid is a high performance, advanced food grade lubricant specially designed for use in the food canning industry.
The makers of Campbell's Soups are proud to do their part, along with others of the canning industry, in feeding our fighting men as well as their families at home.
I refer to the canning industry and this assignment several times in the weeks that follow.
It also gave rise to the canning industry, putting Camden on the leading edge of food distribution technology.