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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.


Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides by Capsule Endoscopy. Balkan Med J 2019;36:143-4
Meng, "Polyp classification based on Bag of Features and saliency in wireless capsule endoscopy," in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp.
Xin et al., "Magnetic-controlled capsule endoscopy vs gastroscopy for gastric diseases: a two-center self-controlled comparative trial," Endoscopy, vol.
Fleischer, "Imaging of small bowel disease: Comparison of capsule endoscopy, standard endoscopy, barium examination, and CT," RadioGraphics, vol.
The introduction of video capsule endoscopy and small intestine enteroscopy devices helped in better estimating the prevalence of PHE.
Leighton et al., "Diaphragm disease after use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents: first report of diagnosis with capsule endoscopy," Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol.
Prestudy using a patency capsule is advised prior to regular capsule endoscopy, especially for patients who are suspected of having a stenotic lesion in the gut [2, 3], because the capsule is dissolvable and naturally broken down within 100200 hours.
Wahid, "Automatic bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy based on RGB pixel intensity ratio," in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information and Communication Technology, ICEEICT, pp.
Capsule endoscopic images, downloaded from the capsule endoscopy database for medical decision support, have been used as test images [22].
Inpatient VCE were identified through a prospective capsule endoscopy database that includes data related to all patients who underwent VCE at our center.
In the article titled "Safety and Efficacy of Small Bowel Examination by Capsule Endoscopy for Patients before Liver Transplantation" [1], the first and last names of all the authors were reversed.
The latest trend gaining momentum in the market is increased use of wireless capsule endoscopy.