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examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.


Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.


References in periodicals archive ?
But a consensus of expert opinion from the International Conference on Capsule Endoscopy in Paris last June suggested that the tool may be an alternative for patients who are unwilling or unable to undergo biopsy, for those whose initial biopsy is equivocal, and for patients with confirmed celiac disease who develop alarming symptoms despite adherence to a gluten-free diet (Endoscopy 2005;37:1055-9).
gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic and director of the Small Bowel Interest Group, capsule endoscopy has exceeded expectations in terms of non-invasive diagnosis of the small bowel.
Capsule endoscopy identified a bleeding source in 224 patients (76.
They studied 196 patients referred to the medical center for capsule endoscopy between April 2004 and March 2006.
Global capsule endoscopy system market is segmented into component, application and geography.
Segments include Videoscope, Laparoscopes, Hysteroscopes, Capsule Endoscope, Capsule Endoscopy Workstation and Others.
A new report by Allied Market Research, titled, "World Capsule Endoscopy Systems - Market Opportunity and Forecast, 2014-2020" , the capsule endoscopy systems market would generate a revenue of $399.
On the basis of applications, the market is categorized into capsule endoscopy, drug delivery, and patient monitoring.
HONOLULU -- Video capsule endoscopy doesn't cut the mustard for evaluation of small bowel polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, Dr.
North America accounts for the largest share of the capsule endoscopy devices market globally.
Wireless video capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure GI bleeding not diagnosed with a conventional work-up provided information that improved health outcomes, a literature review determined.
NEW YORK, May 26, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Capsule endoscopy is a modern technique used to examine the gastrointestinal tract.